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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is an atom?
The smallest particle that retains properties of an element.
What does an atom contain?
A nucleus made out of protons (+)
Neutrons (uncharged)
Surrounded by a could of electrons (-)
What happens if the number of protons equals the number of electrons?
There is no charge.
Where are electrons of atoms contained?
In orbits with ever increasing energy levels.
Each orbit in an atom has how many electrons?
The maximum number of electrons that it can contain.
What happens once the inner orbit reaches its maximum number of electrons?
Additional electrons are housed in the next orbit out.
What does the number of electrons in a particular orbit influence?
An atom's interactions with other atoms.
What is an ionic bond?
2 ions that are held together by opposite charges.
What is an isotope?
A variant of an atom with a different number of neutrons.
Do isotopes interact with other atoms in the same way?
Yes
What's the use of the uniqueness of isoptopes to us?
Lets us follow isotopes in the environment, in plants, people, etc.
How does radiocarbon dating work for archeologists?
Use the proportions of 12C and 14C in dead organic matter to est. how long it has been dead.
What is a molecule?
2 or more atoms bound together.
What is an ion?
Atoms or molecules that are charged due to loss or gain of an electron(s).
What is a covalent bond?
Electrons are shared between atoms.
Result of atoms that each contribute an electron to the other.
VERY STRONG bonds.
What is a nonpolar covalent bond?
2 identical atoms share electrons equally.
Molecule shows no difference in change between its two ends.
Symmetrical.
What is a polar covalent bond?
Between atoms of different elements.
One atom pulls the shared electron a little more than the other.
Slightly negative charge on the end of the bond.
What is a hydrogen bond?
Weak attraction between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom.
Even though hydrogen bonds are weak, what can they do?
Stabilize a structure, such as ice.
Can link chains.
Can cause a molecule to twist back on itself.
What are the six properties of water?
1. Slightly polar; can hydrogen bond to itself or other polar molecules.
2. Repels nonpolar molecules (ie, oils).
3. Stabilized temperatures.
4. Cohesive; stands on a surface; can be pulled up pipelines in plants.
5. Solvent.
6. Used in metabolic reactions.
What are the five molecules of life?
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids
C, H, O, N
What are carbohydrates made of?
Simple sugars
What are lipids made of?
Fatty acids
What are proteins made of?
Amino acids
What are nucleic acids made of?
Nucleotides
What do C, H, O, and N stand for?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
What do carbohydrates make up?
Structural materials in cells.
What do carbohydrates store?
Energy
What is the chemical formula of most carbohydrates?
CH(small)2O
What are monosaccharides?
Single sugar molecules
5-6 carbon atoms
What are disaccharides?
Made of two sugars. (Type of carbohydrate)
How is sucrose made up of?
Glucose and Fuctose combine to form sucrose plus one molecule of water.
What are polysaccharides?
Complex carbohydrates of straight or branched chains of many sugars (cellulose, starch, glycogen).
Give three examples of lipids.
Fats, oils, waxes.
What are six properties of lipids?
1. Structural elements (cell membrans and surface coatings)
2. Energy reserves
3. Signaling molecules
4. Nonopolar hydrocarbons
5. Don't dissolve in water
What is stearic acid?
Saturated fatty acid; single bonds on tail.
What is oleic acid?
Monounsaturated fatty acid; one double bond on tail.
What is linolenic acid?
Polyunsaturated fatty acid; more than one double bond on tail.
What do most animal fats have?
Saturated fatty acids.
Solid at room temp.
What do most plant fats have?
Unsaturated fatty acids.
Liquid at room temp.