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60 Cards in this Set

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True or False

One difference between the theories of evolution proposed by Wallace and Darwin is that Wallace believed that organisms mutate under unfavorable conditions to become better adapted
False.
True or False

Type 2 diabetes is an example of yesterday’s genes in today’s environment
True
True or False

Homologous pairs of chromosomes frequently contain different alleles
True.
True or False

The global hydrologic cycle supports a net flow of atmospheric water vapor from the oceans to land
True.
True or False

The maintenance of the cystic fibrosis allele in today’s humans may be due to increased resistance to typhoid fever in the past for people heterozygous for the normal and the disease allele.
True.
True or False

One reason why Old World diseases had such a devastating effect on New World populations was because of the history of large, dense populations in the Old World
True.
True or False

If rice gamete cells contain 12 chromosomes, then rice diploid cells will have 6 chromosomes.
False.
True or False

To be successful in evolutionary terms, an organism must survive longer than other members of the population
False.
True or False

Assimilation of atmospheric CO2 by plant photosynthesis is not a key part of the carbon cycle
False.
True or False

Bacteria are especially important in making phosphorus available to plants
False.
True or False

A typical result when a diploid cell undergoes meiosis is four haploid cells.
True.
True or False

The population of medium ground finches on Daphne Major shows very little variation in beak dimensions.
False.
True or False

A silent substitution mutation occurs when the changed DNA sequence codes for the same amino acid as the original sequence
True.
True or False

Plants can take in and use atmospheric nitrogen through their leaves
False.
True or False

The average global temperature is relatively high because carbon dioxide and other gases trap the longer wavelengths of infrared light (heat) and prevent them from radiating back into space.
True.
True or False

Over oceans, evaporation exceeds precipitation
True
True or False

During anaphase II sister chromatids separate and migrate toward opposite poles
True
True or False

Asexual reproduction is by far the most common form of reproduction in the animal kingdom.
False.
True or False

The Red Queen hypothesis of the evolution of sex maintains that sex is advantageous in a biotic environment that is constantly changing due to the presence of predators and pathogens.
True.
True or False

Eutrophication (excessive algal growth resulting in decreased concentrations of dissolved O2) in lakes is frequently the direct result of nitrate and phosphate runoffs from land
True.
The ultimate source of all genetic variation is
a. mutation
b. the environment
c. sexual recombination
d. genetic drift
e. natural selection
a. mutation
2. Why is crossing over important?
a. It ensures that homologous chromosomes pair
b. It prevents variation in gametes
c. It is necessary for the attachment of chromosomes to the spindle
d. It allows the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes
e. It holds bivalents together
d. It allows the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes
Natural selection primarily favors
a. genotypes
b. heterozygotes
c. phenotypes
d. homozygotes
e. mutations
c. phenotypes
Synapsis occurs during
a. anaphase I
b. prophase II
c. cytokinesis
d. metaphase I
e. prophase I
e. prophase I
The phosphorus cycle lacks a(n) _____ component.
a. mineral
b. organic
c. aquatic
d. atmospheric
e. organic
d. atmospheric
An explanation for seemingly dissimilar organisms, such as hummingbirds, humans, and whales, having similar skeletal structures is that
a. most evolution occurs rapidly following a mass extinction
b. dissimilar organisms might have evolved from a distant, common ancestor
c. only the best-adapted organisms can survive
d. advantageous changes can be passed along to offspring
e. they all fill similar niches and have similar selective pressures
b. dissimilar organisms might have evolved from a distant, common ancestor
The reason that insecticides introduced 30 years ago kill fewer insects now than in the past is that
a. many insects today are descendants of insects with insecticide-resistant characteristics
b. insects are deliberately adapting themselves to this man-made change in the environment
c. the original spraying has caused a permanent mutation, giving the insects genetic resistance to the spray
d. insects have learned to avoid areas that are sprayed by humans
e. insects that survive spraying develop an immunity to the insecticide
a. many insects today are descendants of insects with insecticide-resistant characteristics
If a hurricane hit a small island, leaving only a tiny group of lizards that then spread out over the island, this would be an example of the
a. bottleneck effect
b. gene flow
c. mutation
d. founder effect
e. nonrandom mating
a. bottleneck effect
Which of the following changes in the gene pool results in an adaptation to the environment?
a. genetic drift
b. gene flow
c. nonrandom mating
d. natural selection
e. mutation
d. natural selection
It was important that Mendel chose true-breeding varieties for his experiments because
a. true-breeding varieties are not heterozygous for the trait of interest
b. true-breeding varieties are more vigorous
c. true-breeding varieties are not homozygous for the trait of interest
d. true-breeding varieties are easier to cross-pollinate
e. true-breeding varieties are heterozygous for the trait of interest
a. true-breeding varieties are not heterozygous for the trait of interest
Which of the following is NOT a way that humans alter the carbon cycle
a. deforestation
b. burning of fossil fuels
c. draining of wetlands
d. cultivation of leguminous crops
e. manufacture of cement
d. cultivation of leguminous crops
In a cross between two heterozygotes (Aa), the next generation will be
a. in the ratio 1:3 homozygotes to heterozygotes
b. in the ratio 1:3 heterozygotes to homozygotes
c. all heterozygotes
d. all homozygotes
e. in the ratio 1:1 homozygotes to heterozygotes
e. in the ratio 1:1 homozygotes to heterozygotes
Which of the following is NOT a way that humans alter the nitrogen cycle
a. manufacture of fertilizers
b. cultivation of rice
c. burning of fossil fuels
d. land clearing for crops
e. manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons
e. manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons
During droughts on Daphne Major in the Galapagos, the medium ground finch
a. increases in population size
b. undergoes directional selection for larger beaks
c. undergoes directional selection for smaller beaks
d. feeds primarily on small, soft seeds
e. shows no relationship between parent beak size and offspring beak size
b. undergoes directional selection for larger beaks
One evolutionary puzzle for biologists is the evolution of sex. Sexual reproduction, when compared to asexual reproduction has several costs, including
a. the rapid production of identical copies of parental genotypes
b. fewer resources are needed to maintain and produce sex organs
c. the cost of producing males, which involves transferring only ½ of a parent’s genes to each offspring
d. the production of variable offspring in variable environments
e. a mechanism, in meiosis for the repair of DNA damage
c. the cost of producing males, which involves transferring only ½ of a parent’s genes to each offspring
Crossing over occurs during
a. prophase II
b. prophase I
c. metaphase I
d. cytokinesis
e. metaphase II
b. prophase I
Flower color in snapdragons is an example of incomplete dominance. If a red-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant, the F1 generation has pink flowers. If a pink-flowered plant is crossed with a pink-flowered plant, the progeny plants will be
a. 100% red
b. 25% red, 50% pink, and 25% white
c. 100% pink
d. 25% white and 75% red
e. 50% pink and 50% red
b. 25% red, 50% pink, and 25% white
Pathogens must do two things to be successful, reproduce and disperse to new hosts. A pathogen may be highly virulent if
a. it has a reliable means of transmission
b. it has a high rate of reproduction and poor transmission
c. it is transmitted directly from host to host
d. it cannot survive outside of the host’s body
e. it has a low rate of mutation
a. it has a reliable means of transmission
Sickle-cell disease can be inherited even if neither parent has the disease. This is because the disease
a. occurs only in polyploid individuals
b. is caused by a recessive allele
c. is caused by a dominant allele
d. requires certain environmental conditions to be expressed
e. occurs only in individuals who are already weak from other causes
b. is caused by a recessive allele
The parasite hypothesis of female choice states that females are choosing males that advertise their ability to resist diseases. Support for this hypothesis is seen in
a. the coloration of male guppies, which becomes more subdued in the presence of predators
b. pheasants, where male spur size, histocompatibility genes and offspring fitness are all positively correlated with each other
c. the attraction of females to the loudest or brightest colored male
d. the occurrence of cryptic female choice mechanisms, such as differential pollen tube growth in the styles of flowers
e. white-tailed deer, where antler size is positively related to the disease load of a buck
b. pheasants, where male spur size, histocompatibility genes and offspring fitness are all positively correlated with each other
homologous chromosomes
two chromosomes in a nucleus that carry genes for the same traits in the same loci
population
the smallest unit that can evolve
epistasis
one gene pair will interact to control the expression of a second gene pair
adaptations
Traits that enhance an individual's ability to compete for limited resources
stabilizing selection
selection that favors intermediates in the distribution of traits in a population
directional selection
selection that favors one end of the distribution of traits in a population
diversifying selection
selection that favors opposite ends of the distribution of traits in a population
artificial selection
selection by humans for desirable traits in an organism
sexual selection
selection for traits that increase mating success
tetrads
a paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids
chromatids
a chromosome and its replicated copy formed prior to mitosis or meiosis
synapsis
the pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during meiosis
genotype
the combination of alleles in an individual for a gene
chiasmata
Regions of chromosomes where nonsister chromatids cross over
phenotype
the physical and physiological traits of an organism
alleles
alternative forms of a gene
pleiotropy
A single genetic locus that controls more than one trait
gene pool
all the individual alleles in a population for a given locus
polyploidy
a multiplying of the diploid number of chromosomes
anisogamy
the occurrence of two different sized gametes in the sexes