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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
is the study of living things
There are enough similarities among some living things that they can be grouped into the same
A life-defining property must be ________ to living things
all living things are comprised of at least one cell
Cellular organization
all living things process energy which is used to power other processes
all living things maintain stable internal environments to optimize conditions for metabolism and other processes
all organisms have the capacity for growth and reproduction
Growth and reproduction
all organisms pass genetic information across generations from parents to offspring
is genetic change in a species over time
the mechanism for evolution is _________ the diversity of life is explained by evolutionary processes
Natural Selection
all living things require energy
The Flow of Energy
describes when two species live in direct contact
evolution favors structures that function in an ______ manner
is a physiological condition of “steady-state”
is a process of investigation, using observation, experimentation, and reasoning
_______reasoning uses general principles to explain specific observations
_______reasoning is the way of discovering general principles from examination of specific observations
possible explanations are called
• all organisms are composed of at least one cell
• the cell is the most basic unit of life
• all cells come from pre-existing cells
the cell theory
• genetic information is encoded in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
• genes encode specific proteins or RNA or act to regulate other genes
• the proteins and RNA encoded by an organism’s genes determine what it will be like in terms of form and function
The gene theory
• genes are passed down generations as discrete units
Mendel’s theory of heredity gave rise to the field of genetics
chromosomal theory of inheritance located Mendelian genes on chromosomes
The heredity theory
evolution explains the unity and diversity of life as “descent with modification”
• All living organisms are related to one another in a common tree of descent
The evolution theory
describes how organisms live in their environment
• Darwin envisioned the frequency of favorable characteristics increasing in a population through a process called
natural selection
Darwin termed this form of selection, _________, because breeders determined which traits were successful, rather than nature
artificial selection
– individuals of the same species that live together
– populations of different species that live together in the same place
– a community and the nonliving factors which it interacts
– major terrestrial assemblages of plants, animals, and microorganisms that occur over wide geographic areas and have distinctive physical characteristics
– all the world’s biomes, along with its marine and freshwater assemblages, together constitute an interactive system called the biosphere
defines an organism’s biological role
occurs when two organisms attempt to use the same resource
– competition between members of different species
– competition between members of the same species
occurs as changes in competing species to reduce niche overlap
species that live together show more distinctiveness than do species living separately
Character displacement
• One potential and important interaction in a community involves one organism eating another
• Both predators (i.e., the eaters) and prey (i.e., the eaten) may undergo reciprocal evolutionary adjustments
• _______ is an interaction in which two or more kinds of organisms interact in a close relationship
• Any substance in the universe that has mass and occupies space is comprised of _______
• all matter is made up of ______
the number of protons in the nucleus
• atomic number
the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus
• mass number
• electrons have energy of position, called ________
potential energy
• the field of energy around an atom is arranged as levels called _______
electron shells
________are where electrons are most likely to be found
• ______ – atoms that have gained or lost one or more electrons
• _______ atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
most elements in nature exist as mixtures of different isotopes
Isotopes –
• Some isotopes are unstable and break up into particles with lower atomic numbers
• this process is known as ______
radioactive decay
• A ______ is a group of atoms held together by energy
the energy holding two atoms together is called a ______
chemical bond
• ________ involve the attraction of opposite electrical charges
Ionic bonds
• ________– form between two atoms when they share electrons
Covalent bonds
• _______ are weak bonds that form due to covalent bonds where one nucleus attracts the shared electrons more than another nucleus
Hydrogen bonds
this attraction for electrons by a nucleus is called the atom’s _________
• Hydrogen bonds form in association with _______
• Hydrogen bonds form in association with polar molecules
_______– when one water molecule is attracted to another water molecule
_______ – when polar molecules other than water stick to a water molecule
• ______– any substance that dissociates in water and increases the [H+]
• ______ – any substance that combines with [H+] when dissolved in water
• ______ – a chemical substance that takes up or releases hydrogen ions
• _______ are formed by living organisms
Organic molecules
• The building materials of the body are known as ______ because they can be very large
• Large macromolecules are actually assembled from many similar small components, called _______
• the assembled chain of monomers is known as a ________
because this amounts to the removal of a molecule of water (H2O), this process of linking together two subunits to form a polymer is called ______
dehydration synthesis
• a molecule of water is added to break the covalent bond between the monomers
• Proteins are complex macromolecules that are polymers of many subunits called _______
amino acids
• the covalent bond linking two amino acids together is called a _______
peptide bond
• the assembled polymer is called a ______
• ________ – the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
This determines all other levels of protein structure
Primary structure
2 Proteins
• _______ forms because regions of the polypeptide that are non-polar are forced together
The folded structure may resemble coils, helices, or sheets
Secondary structure
• _______ – the final 3-D shape of the protein
The final twists and folds that lead to this shape are the result of polarity differences in regions of the polypeptide
Tertiary structure
2 Proteins
• ______ – the spatial arrangement of proteins comprised of more than one polypeptide chain
Quaternary structure
• _______ are very long polymers that store information
Nucleic acids
• The structure of DNA is a _____
double helix
• _______ are monomers that make up the structural framework of cells and play a critical role in energy storage
• Carbohydrates
_______ – made up of one or two monomers
simple carbohydrates
________ – made up of polymers
complex carbohydrates
_________ consist of only one monomer subunit
________ consist of two monosaccharides
• ________ are long polymer chains
Complex carbohydrates
plants form ______
animals form ______
starch, glycogen
• _______ – fats and other molecules that are not soluble in water
fatty acids are chains of C and H atoms, known as ________
if the maximum number of hydrogens are attached, then the fat is said to be ______
if there are fewer than the maximum attached, then the fat is said to be ______
______ make up the two layers of the membrane
________ is embedded within the membrane
• ________ forms the boundary of the cell
plasma membrane
• ________ fills the interior of the cell
• ________ refers to the minimum distance that two points can be apart and still be distinguished as two separated points
_______ is the analysis of tissues using microscopy
• The plasma membrane is conceptualized by the _________
fluid mosaic model
the fat molecules comprising the lipid layers are called _______
• A phospholipid has a _____ head and two ______ tails
ploar, non polar
• The polar region is comprised of a phosphate chemical group and is ______
• The non-polar region is comprised of fatty acids and is ______
• Another major component of the membrane is a collection of _______
membrane proteins
some proteins form channels that span the membrane
these are called ________
transmembrane proteins
________ are attached to the outer surface of the membrane and act as markers
cell surface proteins
lacks a nucleus and does not have an extensive system of internal membranes
all bacteria and archae have this cell type
has a nucleus and has internal membrane-bound compartments
all organisms other than bacteria or archae have this cell type
______ comprised of carbohydrates to confer rigid structure
cell wall
_______(sites for protein synthesis) are scattered throughout the cytoplasm
________ (an area of the cell where DNA is localized)
not membrane-bound, so not a true nucleus
nucleoid region
_______ is a collection of protein fibers that extends from the cell surface
may be one or many
flagellum (plural, flagellae)
________ is a short flagellum
aids in attaching to substrates and in exchanging genetic information between cells
pilus (plural, pili)
• Eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells
have a plasma membrane encasing a cytoplasm
internal membranes form compartments called _______
the cytoplasm is semi-fluid and contains an network of protein fibers that form a scaffold called a _______
all plants and many protists contain organelles called _______
• The nuclear surface is bounded by a double-membrane called the ______
nuclear envelope
groups of proteins form openings called _______ that permit proteins and RNA to pass in and out of the nucleus
nuclear pores
• The DNA of eukaryotes is packaged into segments and associated with a protein
this complex is called a _______
the DNA is uncoiled into strands called _______ that are no longer visible as segments
some of the membranes form channels and interconnections
other portions become isolated spaces enclosed by membranes
these spaces are known as _______
• The segment of the ER dedicated to protein synthesis is called the ______
rough ER
• The segment of the ER that aids in the manufacture of carbohydrates and lipids is called the _______
smooth ER
• After synthesis in the ER, the newly-made molecules are passed to the ______
Golgi bodies
• The Golgi complex also gives rise to _______
• _______ are different components of the endomembrane system that are also found in the cell
• _______ are cellular powerhouses
• Sites for chemical reactions called _______
oxidative metabolism
• Chloroplasts are the location for ________
thick ropes of intertwined protein
intermediate filaments
hollow tubes made up of the protein tubulin
long, slender microfilaments made up of the protein actin
• ________ are complex structures that assemble microtubules in animal cells and the cells of most protists
_______ are membrane-bound storage centers
_______ appears to be a large empty space inside a plant cell but is actually filled with water and dissolved substances
central vacuole
________ is found near the cell surface of some protists and accumulates excess water from inside the cell that it then pumps out
contractile vacuole
• ______ proteins form a protective layer over the cell surface
collegin and elastin
• The net movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is termed ______
_______are selective channels that permit water to cross
• Water moves down its concentration gradient in moving into or out of a cell through a process called _______
• the solution with the higher concentration is called _______
• The solution with the lower concentration is called _______
• Movement of water by osmosis into a cell causes pressure called _________
osmotic pressure
______ is the engulfing of substances outside of the cell in order to form a vesicle that is brought inside the cell
_______ is the discharge of substances from vesicles at the inner surface of the cell
• _______is endocytosis of particulate (solid) matter
• _______ is endocytosis of liquid matter
• _______permeability allows cells to control specifically what enters and leaves
the only way that protons can cross back into the cell is through channels that generate ATP
• this process, known as ________