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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is one example of phosphodiesterases?
What is the master gland in mammals?
pituitary gland
What do genetic males that lack the receptor for testosterone develope into?
sterile females
What tend to be evolutionarily higly conserved, or that the same hormones are found in many different groups?
vetebrate hormones
Why is calcium crucial to muscles?
it is crucial to contractions and a vital role in chemical transmission at nerve synapses
What must cells have and what are they called that enable them to respond to the singnal?
cells must have enzyme receptors called target cells
What are the four tropic hormones?
thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone)
adrenocorticotropin (ACT)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
What is the term for cyclic AMP in the cell rapidly broken down to teh inactive AMP enzyme?
What happens when low vasopressin is produced?
levels reduce the water reabsorption so that a large quanitity of dilute urine is produced
Steroids are universally what?
gene activators
what if a high level of JH is found? What happens if a low level is found?
high levels result in a larva molt, low levels result in either a large larval-adult or larval-pupal molt
What is the primary function of the cascade?
ampligy the signal
What harmone determines which developmental stage will result from molt?
(JH) juvenile hormone
The mRNA moves to the cytosol where it combines with what?
What determines whether a substance is a neurotransmitter or a neurohormone?
depends entirelyon where its released
What does kinases do?
add phosphate to specific proteins
what cells release the hormone which distribute the hormones to other cells?
effector cells
Why is it hard to determine what is the main function in cells?
it plays so many different roles
What inhibits vasopression release?
ethanol such as beer
The receptor molecule then binds to?
an in active G-protein getting rid of the GDP and binding the GTP
What is the chemical messenger in multicellular organisms?
Why is calcium crucial to muscles?
it is crucial to contractions and a vital role in chemical transmission at nerve synapses
What do circulartory hormones rely on for distribution?
circulartory system
What happens to a peptide hormone when it reaches a target cell?
it binds to a trasmembrane receptor molecule, much like a substrate binds to the active site of an enzyme
Glands that have ducts, secrete non-hormone products to the outside of the body, such as sweat glands and salivary glands are know as what?
exocrine glands
What must a steroid hormone bind to when it enters the cell?
cytosolic receptor protein
What is a synapes?
two neurons, or a neuron and another cell meet
What are some lipid-soluble harmones?
steroids, testosterone and cortisol
What two hormones does the pituitary store and release from the hypothalamus?
vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone ADH) and oxytocin
What are other second messengers?
What is the best example of local hormones and why?
histamine because it is released by mast cells in response to injury
Where are the harmone receptors for steroids located?
in the cytosol
Where is the thyroid gland located?
lower part of the throat
In the end steroidcs can have what?
both primary and secondary responses
What is the name of the bug that Sir Wigglesworth used in his experiment?
What is the best known second messernger?
cAMP (adenosin 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate)
What two regions is the pituitary gland divided in?
anterior and posterior
What determines which genes are activated?
depends primarily on the structure of the receptor protein
What are the several levels of chemical signaling that we recognize?
local hormone neurotransmitters and circulating hormones
What do peptides and proteins depend on to enter the cell?
Second Messengers to produce their actions
What is condition known as when the histamine reaction is so violent that the fluid leakage into the lungs can lead to circulatory and resperitory failure?
anaphylactic shock
Why is calcium crucial to muscles?
it is crucial to contractions and a vital role in chemical transmission at nerve synapses
What does the response depend on for most chmical signals?
the precence of receptors in the postsynaptic cell
What harmones are secreted at puberty?
Hypothalamus begins to secrete gonadotropin-releasing harmone(GnRH) in which causes the pituitary gland to produce LH and FSH
The hypothalamus contains a suite of neurohormones mostly small peptides that aer released into the what?
portal blood vessels
What is produced when a protein and calcium bind?
Why is the pituitary gland considered the master gland?
many of the pituitary's hormones act on other endocrine glands rather than directly on a tissue
Lipid-soluble harmones such as steroids are hydrophobic and need as special _________ for distribution.
carrier protein
What is the primary role of vasopression?
control kidney fuction, it also increases blood pressure but it is not the primary role
What does the receptor hormone complex promote?
transcription which is the production of messenger RNA (mRNA)
What is another term for hormones that regulate other endocrine glands?
tropic hormones
What must in the target cell in both cases of hormones?
the target cell must amplify the harmonal signal
Another chemical signal call neurotransmitters occur in very confined regions called?
Testosterone can have ______ different ________in different tissues.
many, different
How do cells communicate with one another?
by means of special signaling chemicals
What are the two main classes of hormones?
water-soluble hormones and lipid-soluble hormones
What are the stages of molting called?
What harmone does the thyroid release that regulates the levels of calcium in the blood?
The peptides that are released into teh portal blood vessels are responsible for what?
regulating the release, or inhibition of release of the pituitary glands
What does cAMP do in the liver cells?
activates the protein kinase A
What is the condition call if there is an imbalance of calcitonin and parathormones?
What are released into the extacellular fluid and exert their influence only on cells with diffusing distances?
local hormones
How are most water-soluble harmones trasported through the body?
by the blood
What is the study of chemical signaling called?
What are the terms for male and female hormones?
in males harmones are called androgens (example is testosterone)
in females the harmones are called estrogens example is estradiol) and progestins (example isprogesterone)
Who was the pioneer of hormonal control and development?
Sir Vincent Wigglesworth
Because the target cell amplifies the hormone signal it ______________.
realitively few hormone molecules can produce major cellular respones
The anterior pituitary synthesizes and stores hormones which it releases in response to?
the hypothalamus
Somattostatin is also know as the hormone released from the hypothalamus to inhibit what?
smatotropin release
What are the five non-tropic hormones?
groth hormone (somatotropin)
melanocytestimulating hormone (MSH)
endorphins and endephalins
Why can't peptides pass through the plasma membrane?
because they are polar so the harmone receptors must be on the out side of the cell
The pituitary does not synthesize its own harmones, rather it stores and releases two harmones from the?
Where are the adrenal glands located?
on top of each kidney, they are also considered a gland with in a gland
What is histamine the primary cause of?
What is the sex harmone initially important?
determining the physical developement
What happens if there is high vasopressin?
levels result in water reabsorbsion so a low volume of concentrated urine is produced
What hormone secreted by the pancreas stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood?
The thyroid gland releases what in response to what
it releases thyroxine in respones to thyrotropin (TSH)
What then does a G-protein bind to?
adenylate cyclase
What is the major hormone that regulates the overall metabolic rate of mammals?
What produces the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenalin(norepinephrine)?
adrenal medulla
Glands that secrete hormones internaly and have no ducts are know as?
endocrine glands
How long before the embryo can be determined if it is male or female?
6 weeks
Most secretory cells are clumped together into organs called?
What does the parathormone stimulate to reabsorp or break down bone?
What are examples of water-soluble harmones?
peptides, adrenaline and insulin
What are the primary sources for sex steroids although the adrenals serve a minor function in sex steroid scretion?
testes (in males) ovaries (in females)
What is meant by G-protein being a weak GTPase?
after a short time it breakes the GTP into the bound GDP and free Pi shutting off the response
What do calcitonin stimulate to build new bone?
What is the condition called if the thyroid gland malfunctions or if the dietary iodine is not available?
goiter the thyroid gland swells and is large and visible
What are all of the steroid harmones synthesized by the adrenal cortex and by the gonads derived from?
What are the three main harmones released from the pancreas?
islets of langerhans
What harmone secreted by the pancreas is released in to the systemic circulation, inhibits the release of insulin and glucagon, and slows gut activity prehaps to increase the time available to digest food?
What produces a suite of steroid hormones-- the glucocorticoids the mineralcorticoids and the sex steroids?
adrenal cortex
What influences fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism?
What are located on the back of the thyroid gland and what do they secrete
the parathyroids are located on the back of the thyroid and secrete parathormone which also regulate the blood calcium
The pancreas also acts as?
and exocrine gland
What influences the inonic balance of the extraceller fluid?
What is the largest store of calcium?
What produces the well know fight or flight respones?
Which harmone secreted by the pancreas secretes insulin which burns glucose to store it as glycogen and fat?
islets of langerhans