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85 Cards in this Set

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What are some characteristics of prokaryotic cells?
Pro—before, karyon—nucleus
A rare few have simple organelles but no nucleus
Reactions typically proceed at the plasma membrane or in the cytoplasm
What are photoautotrophic cells?
Cells that make their own food by a photosynthetic pathway that uses sunlight and CO2
How do bacteria reproduce?
Prokaryotic fission
What are some pathogenic bacteria?
West Nile, E. coli
What is E. coli?
The most common strain of E. coli lives inside the mammalian gut
This chemoheterotroph makes vitamin K, helps digest fat, and normally keeps foodborne pathogens in check by outcompeting them for nutrients
What is Rhizobium?
Causes nitrogen-fixing nodules to form on roots of peas and many other legumes
What are methanogens?
Methane makers
What are Archaebacteria?
Prokaryotic, Methanogens (methane makers), extreme halophiles (salt lovers), or extreme thermophiles (heat lovers)
What are some characteristics of viruses?
A noncellular infectious particle that consists of DNA or RNA enclosed within a protein coat
What is the lysogenic pathway of viral infection?
A latent period extends the cycle
The virus doesn’t kill a host cell outright
What are prions?
Infectious proteins
What does endemic refer to?
More or less are always present in a population but are confined to a small part of it

What are two modern-day pandemics?
What are antibiotics?
Compounds synthesized by one organism that can kill another
What are some descriptors of Protists?
Have a nucleus
Most also have mitochondria, ER, and Golgi bodies
Have more than one chromosome, each consisting of DNA
Divide by way of mitosis, meiosis, or both
How do trypanosomes enter a vertebrate body?
Biting insects
What is Paramecium?
A freshwater species
Outer body cover consists of rigid or flexible membranes, cilia sweep food into gullet, then it is enclosed in enzyme-filled vesicles
Depends on contractile vacuoles to expel water
What single-celled organisms have a hardened shell?
What organisms cause red tide?
Karenia brevis
What caused the Irish potato famine?
Water mold
What is Plasmodium and what does it infect?
Causes Malaria. Infected more than 300 million people in tropical parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa
Where is agar extracted from?
Cell walls

Keeps baked goods and cosmetics moist, firms up jellies, and is used as a culture medium and as soft capsules for drugs
What Protistans are most similar to plants?
Green algae
What Protistans are not heterotrophs?
Apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, stramenopiles—oomycotes
Which Protistans are least mobile?
How do fungi digest food?
Secrete digestive enzymes, then individual cells absorb digestive bites
What are saprobes?
Organisms that absorb nutrients from nonliving organic material and cause its decay
What are the life-cycles of the fungi?
Club fungus cycle:
1) haploid mycelium is buried in soil or decaying wood
2) sexual reproduction begins with fusion of two mating strains of hyphae. This produces a mycelium with each cell having two haploid nuclei. Specialized hyphae form fruiting bodies under favorable conditions. Nonmotile, haploid spores form in club-shaped cells on mushroom. Air currents disperse spores.

Review 20.9 in notes
What are the reproductive cells of fungi?
Most food-spoiling molds are?
Multicelled sac fungi
What is a lichen?
Consists of a fungal species intertwined with one or more photoautotrophs, most often green algae or cyanobacteria
What group of fungi do mushrooms belong to?
Club Fungi
What type of relationship is exhibited by mycorrhizae and plants?
They are mutualists
What type of fungi do wine-makers depend on?
What are the three types of embryonic tissues?
Outer ectoderm, Inner endoderm, Coelom
What invertebrate phylum has the most species?
What terms describe all animals?
Reproduce sexually and asexually
Embryos usually develop through a series of stages
What is a complete digestive tract?
Tubular gut, starts at a mouth and ends at an anus
What animals have radial symmetry?
What is coelom?
Tissue that lies between the gut and body wall and has a lining
What are some characteristics of sponges?
No symmetry, tissues, or organs. Typically “filter feeders.”
What are nematocysts?
Capsules with dischargeable tube-shaped threads which may have an open-tipped barb for delivering toxin
What is mesoglea?
Lies between the epidermis and gastrodermis
What is Obelia?
Has a medusa as its sexual stage
What are the three classes of flatworms?
Turbellarians—tubellaria, Flukes—Trematoda, Tapeworms—Cestoda
Which flatworms absorb predigested food from their hosts?
Which mollusks have memory capability?
What are setae?
Bristles, they provide traction for moving through the earth
What is metamorphosis?
The body form changes from embryo to adult—under hormonal commands, their size increases, tissues reorganize, and body parts undergo remodeling
What is elephantiasis?
A severe case of edema. Adults get lodged in lymph nodes, obstructing lymph flow, which backs up into tissue spaces and enlarges the legs, feet, and other body parts
What are nephridia?
Regulate the volume and composition of body fluids
How can you classify anthropods based on antennae?
None—spiders, ticks, and mites teliceroda
What are book lungs?
Internally moistened sacs for gas exchange
What is a water-vascular system?
Unique to echinoderms
Connect to tube feet which help the organisms move
What are some characteristics of insects that make them so successful?
Hardened exoskeletons
Jointed appendages
Specialized segments and fused-together segments
Respiratory structures
What are the four-chordate features?
Notochord—a long rod of stiffened tissue that helps support the body
The nervous system develops from a tubular, dorsal nerve cord, which runs parallel to notochord and gut
Embryos have distinctive slits in the wall of their pharynx, which is a muscularized tube
A tail forms in embryos and extends past the anus
What are lancelets?
Fish-shaped, translucent animals
In what did the vertebrate jaw first appear?
From what structures did lungs develop in fishes?
What are some jawless fishes?
How do lampreys feed?
They are parasitic. They attach to prey with a sucker like oral disk
What make sharks uniquely different from other fish?
Cartilaginous. Cartilage skeletons
What are coelacanths?
Lobe-fin fish
What do amphibians need an aquatic environment for?
To lay eggs
What feature distinguishes amphibians from earlier vertebrates?
Their heart was divided into three chambers to pump more oxygen-rich blood to cells
They promoted the expansion of the brain regions that received, interpreted, and responded to the richly novel sensory input
Which group first exhibited an amniote egg?
What characteristics separate reptiles from amphibians?
Anphibians are the group of vertebrates that were the first tetrapods (four-legs) on land. They either have four legs or four-legged aquatic ancestor, and the body plan and reproductive modes are somewhere between fish and "reptiles." They lay their eggs in the water.
Reptiles are the only vertebrates that produce eggs having four membranes. All have dry, tough, or scaly skin that restricts water loss and have a pair of efficient water-conserving kidneys
Which reptiles have a four-chambered heart?
What are mammalian characteristics?
Only vertebrates with hair and mammary glands
Care for young for extended periods
Born with the capacity to learn and to repeat behavior with survival value—behavioral flexibility—expand on basic activities with novel behaviors
What brain region in mammals deals with balance?
What group relies on placenta?
What are anthropoids?
Monkeys, apes, and humans
In which group is bipedalism most highly developed?
What features are characteristic of evolutionary trends in primates?
Less reliance on the sense of smell and more on daytime vision
Skeletal changes led to upright walking, which freed the hands for novel tasks
Changes in bones and muscles led to refined hand movements
Teeth became less specialized
Evolution of the brain, behavior, and culture became interlocked
Who was Homo erectus?
A species on the evolutionary road to modern humans. “Upright Man”
What are the egg-laying mammals?
Monotremes, Platypus, Two ant eaters
What is a tissue?
Community of cells and intercellular substances that are interacting in one or more tasks
What are the extracellular fluids?
Not found inside cells
Interstitial fluid—fills the spaces between cells and tissues
Plasma—liquid portion of blood
What are the main transport tissues of plants?
Vascular systems
What do vascular systems transport?
Gasses, nutrients, water, hormones, wastes, and infection-fighting white cells
What is apoptosis?
The process of programmed cell death
What are effectors?
Muscles, glands, or both—carry out responses
What are circadian rhythms?
A biological activity repeated in cycles that each last close to 24 hours
What is transduction?
When a signal is "transduced"- it is changed into a form that can operate inside the cell.
What is an example of homeostatic mechanism in the human?
Sensory receptors—detect stimuli, which are specific forms of energy
Integrator—a central command post that receives and processes information about stimuli
Effectors—muscles, glands, or both—carry out responses