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39 Cards in this Set

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How is a substrate molecule maneuvered into the active site?
Waals forces
energy can be converted from one form to another but not created; is the term
law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of mass)
Metabolism is what type of reaction?
chemical recation
When energy is converted from one form to another what is given off?
heat (energy)
______ is when molecules that are competeting with the substrate covalently bondto teh enzymes.
Irreversible inhibition
Energy can be expressed as...
"heat content" or Enthalpy
______ are proteins with pockets in their surface(active sites)
Enzymes
What is the equation for heat content or Enthalpy?
Enthalpy(H)=energY(E)+pressure(P)x Volume(V)

H=E+PxV
The higher the____ of a system the greater the probability to "destabilize" a certain compound or increase its entrophy
temperature
What determines dissociation and/or charge of a substrate or enzyme?
pH
What are biological catalysts?
protiens called enzymes
_____is with in an organism lead to changes of the energy content of the participating molecules
chemimcal reaction (metabolism)
______ is the additional enegy needed in reactions to help break existing chemical bonds
activation energy
_______ are driven toward the side of greater entropy
reversible processes
The change in the energy content is a measureof?
the amount of energy released or consumed during a (chemical) reaction
is the total energy content
Enthalpy
What is the most fundemental property of any chemical reaction?
the change of free energy
( G)
What dertermines which molecules can bind to a given enzyme?
shape and size
_____ is when reactions or exothermic(realease energy) and the energy can be converted in to ATP
exergonic
What must happen for catalysis to occur?
the molecule on which enzymes act (substrate must fit precisely into the active site
What are some factors that affect enzyme activity?
temperature and pH
What happens when a temperature is to low or to high?
When temperature is to low no enzyme activity (reaction)takes place (enzymes become to rigid), When temperature is to high enzymes become "denatured" (damaged).
Any reaction that produces products containing ____ free energy will proceed spontaneously.
less
All organisms couple the ______ to the formation of ATP which in turn drives endergonic reactions.
energy-yielding process
what is the equation for free energy
G=H-T(S)
or the change of energy at a constant temperature
______lower the activation enery, they do not affect the energy balance of a chemical reaction but increase the speed of a given reaction.
catalysts
_____ is the energy to do work
free energy
when is energy produced in a chemical reaction or in any type of reaction?
When the products of a reaction contain less energy than the original reactants energy
At what pH do reactions (enzyme activity) take place?
between 4 and 7
The amount of energy consumed to make a certain molecule is the same gained by its______
oxidation
____is when heat is needed in a reaction or requires energy
endothermic
What temperature can an enzyme activity take place?
between 10 to 70 degrees (36 to 39 degrees in humans)
____is when heat is given off.
Exothermic
How does enzyme stubstrate complex break down?
It breaks down after the product P is formed ES=>E+S
_____is a measure for disorder or the extent to which the energy of a system is unavailable. ______ is also is a spontaneouly occuring process which lead to a lower final energy content.
Entropy
when the substrate molecule is in the active site what is formed?
enzyme-substrate complex
____ is when a reaction is endothermic(needs energy to preform) and needs the ATP produced by exergonic
endergonic
_____ is the competition between substrates and other molecules
Reversable competitive inhibition
How do enzyme reactions typically proceed?
by binding substrate S to the enzyme E and the formation of an Enzyme substrate complex

ESe+s=es