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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nucleus
Structure that encloses and protects the DNA
Nuclear envelope
double membrane system with large proteins pores surrounding the nucleoplasm
Nucleoplasm
all materials and structures enclosed by nuclear envelope
Chromatin
Cell's collection of DNA and histone

DNA + Histone = chromosomes only during the process of cell division
Nucleosus (pl. nuceoli)
Clump of RNA and proteins within nucleus
Cytoplasm
all material within the cell except the nucleus -- structures are referred to as Organelles
Ribosomes
Small bodies made of RNA and protein
-they are free in cytoplasm and attached to rough ER
-made by the nucleolus
-used for protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum
network of channels made of plasma membrane
Rough ER
Ribosomes attached to it
-Modifies proteins by attaching carbohydrates to them for folding them into globular shape
-transports proteins produced by the ribosomes to the smooth ER
-Transported through the LUMEN
Smooth ER
No ribosomes
-Produces Lipids
-Places proteins and lipids into transport vesicles for delivery to Golgi Apparatus
-stores substances (ex. storage of Ca+2 in muscle cells
Golgi Apparatus
stack of flattened sacks made of plasma membranes
functions of Golgi Apparatus (3)
1) Receives proteins and lipids from rough and smooth ER
2) Modifies them
3) Packages them into secretion vesicles for delivery to outside of cell
functions of Endomembrane System (3)
1) produces carbohydrates
2) produce the cell plate between recently divided plant cells
3) produces lysosomes - membrane bound packages of lytic enzymes
lysosomes (2)
1) break down dead organelles or cells
2) digests food in food vacuoles
Microbodies
membrane bound packages of enzymatic(not lytic)
Peroxisome
microbodies containing enzymes to catalyze reactions that use H removed from molecules to make peroxide(H202)
reaction from peroxisome

and Where does this happen? (2 places)
H + O2 >>> H202 >>> H2O + O2

1) in cells that metabolize lipids and amino acids
2) cells that metabolize alcohol (liver)
Vacuoles
single membrane structures used for storage
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell
capsule shaped with double plasma membranes
cristae
folds of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
Matrix
Fluid with inner compartment of mitochodrion
Chloroplast
multiple membranes with space in between.
Thylakoids
disk shaped membranous structures within the chloroplast
grana
stacks of thylakoids (singular is a granum)
Stroma
fluid within the inner compartment of a chloroplast
Function of Chloroplast
PHOTOSYNTHESIS - using sunlight to convert CO2 to glucose
Where is Chloroplast?
In organisms that can convert inorganic compounds (CO2) into rich organic compounds using outside energy sources
Cytoplasm
internal framework of cells
Functions of cytoplasm (3)
1) determines cells shape
2) involved in internal organization
3) involved in cell movement
Microtubules
Hollow rods made of tubulin
centrosome
regulates assembly of microtubules
Microfilaments
very thin rods made of protein (actin, myosin, etc)
Cleavage Furrow
cause of division of cytoplasm in animal cell
Intermediate filaments
ropelike protein molecule found in animal cells one
Centrioles
cylinders composed of a 9+0 arrangement of microtubules

-They give rise to cilia and flagella and become active during division of DNA
Cilia and Flagella
extention of a cell membrane around 9+2 arrangement of microtubules