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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 7 characteristics of life. (3)
a)order
b)evolutionary adaption
c)response to environment
d)regulation
e)energy processing
f)growth and development
g)reproduction
Explain the order of life, from molecules to biosphere. (4-5)
Molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, biosphere.
Def: The entire library of genetic instructions of an organism. (8)
Genome
Def: Properties that emerge with each step upwards in the hierarchy of life. (9)
Emergent properties
Def: Reducing complex systems to simpler components. (9)
Reductionism
Def: Anything with a mass that takes up space. (33)
Matter
Def: 2 or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio. (33)
Compound
Def: Elements required by an organism in only minute quantaties.(33)
Trace elements
Which bonds are the strongest?(38)
Covalent bonds
Def: Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations. (42)
Van der waals interactions
Name four behaviours of water that make it essential to life. (48)
a)Cohesion
b)Moderation of temperature
c)Insulation due to floating ice
d)Good solvent
Describe one use for cohesion in water, and how it works. (48)
Due to the hydrogen bonding, a substantial amount of moleules are constantly binding. This helps with adhesion, and is how trees bring water upwards.
Why does water have a high specific heat? (48)
Most of the heat goes towards the disruption of hydrogen bonds. When the temperature drops, many bonds break, slowing its descent.
How does water become less dense when it freezes? (48)
When water freezes, the hydrogen bonds crystallize and form a lattice-type network, expanding the water and making it 10% less dense than water.
Name two techniques that water uses to dissolve solutes that make it a good solvent.
a)With an ionic solute, the positive ions cling to the oxygen, and the anions cling to the hydrogen.
b)With other solutes, the water surrounds each ion and forms a "hydration shell".
Def: a stable suspension of fine particles in liquid. (52)
Colloid
Def: 6.02 E-23 (52)
Avagadro's number
Def: Amount of heat required for 1g of substance to change 1 degree celsius. (49)
Specific heat
Def: Common name for the specific heat of water. (49)
Calorie
Def: Molecules with only carbon and hydrogen. (63)
Hydrocarbon
The right and left hands are examples of what type of isomer? (50~)
Enantiomers
Def: Biological molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions. (63)
Functional Groups
-OH
Commonly known as alcohols.
What type of molecule is this?
Hydroxyl
-SH
Commonly known as thiols.
What is this? (63)
Sulfhydryl
Def: Covalent bond between two sugars. (66)
Covalent bond between two sugars.
List 3 common types of monosaccharides. (66)
a)glucose
b)galactose
c)fructose
List 3 common types of disacchardies. (66)
a)sucrose
b)maltose
c)lactose
List 3 common types of polysaccharides. (66)
a)starch
b)glycogen
c)cellulose