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34 Cards in this Set

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what are the kcal requirements for women
WOMEN= 1800-2000 KCAL/DAY
what are the kcal requirements for men
MEN= 2200-2500 KCAL/DAY
how many atp's are produced through glycosis
two
What is the 1st limitation of Metabolism
1) ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED, ONLY CHANGED IN FORM
The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule.
Phosphorylation
What part of the chloroplasts does light reaction take place
Grana
What kind of light does it require
visible
What kind of chlorofyll does
photosystems I contain
chlorofyll A
What kind of light does Chlorofyll A absorb
red, violet and blue
What is Chlorofyll A
A pigment that absorbs red, violet and blue light
1)What kind of Chlorofyll does photosystems II contain.
2)How much of this pigment does photosystems II contain.
1)chlorofyll B
2) 80%
Besides chlorofyll B, what other pigment does photosystem II contain
20 PERCENT CAROTENOIDS(YELLOW, ORANGE+ RED PIGMENTS THAT ABSORB LIGHT
What kind of light is absorbed by Chlorofyll B
MOSTLY BLUE LIGHT
What color are Chlorofyll A & B pigments
Green
A stack of thylakoids
Grana
The stage of cellular respiration that occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid of the cell, in which a glucose is broken into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate
glycosis
What do the letters ATP stand for
AdenosineTriphosphate-

consists 0f adenosine and (tri) 3 phosphates
Is Fermentaion aerobic or anaeroblic respiration?
fermentation is anaerobic
Where does AEROBIC respiration OCCUR
Mitochondria
AEROBIC RESPIRATION OCCURS AFTER what kind of
respiration
anaerobic
electron transport chain
Completed inside the inner mitochondrial membrane

-ATP is produced when high-energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH to FADH2 to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules.
citric acid cycle
-For each molecule of glucose, you get two pyruvates, so:

6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP are generated
cellular respiration
Yields 36-38 ATP (vs. 2 ATP through glycolysis)

-Oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons, so it is an aerobic process.

There are three stages:
1. Pyruvate decarboxylation
2. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs cycle)
3. Electron Transport Chain
There are 4 steps to aerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration has four stages

1)Glycolysis - A six-carbon glucose molecule is converted to two, 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate. This process occurs in the cytoplasm. In order to initiate the process, 2 molecules of ATP are consumed. Four molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH are produced;
3) Formation of acetyl
coenzyme A - Each pyruvate molecules is oxidized to carbon dioxide and a 2-carbon acetyl group. The carbon dioxide is released as a waste product, and the 2-carbon acetyl group is bound to coenzyme A and brought into the mitochondrion;
2) citric acid cycle - Each of the 2-carbon acetyl groups produced from the original glucose molecule is bonded to a pre-existing molecule of oxaloacetate to form citrate (i.e. citric acid). These two citric acid molecules are gradually oxidized, and the hydrogen ions are bound to NAD to form NADH and to FAD to form FADH2. Oxaloacetate is produced when the last carbon atom is released in the form of carbon dioxide;
4) Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis - The electrons removed from the molecules in glycolysis and citric acid follow a series of cytochromes on the mitochondrial membrane, while the hydrogen ions (protons) are pumped across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. These protons flow through ATP synthase enzyme molecules, and thereby release energy which drives the formation of ATP molecules.
What are the 4 steps to Aerobic respiration
1)Glycosis
2)formation of Acetyl
CoenzymeA
3)Citric Acid Cycle
4)Electron Transport Chain &
chemiosmosis
(chemi osmosis)
Where does glycolisis occur
cytoplasm
where is ATP formed
mitochondra
chemiosmosis
(chemi osmosis)
a process by which atp is formed in mitochondria as protons(h+) flow down a proton gradient through the atp synthetase complex in the cristae membrane
Where does glycolisis occur
cytoplasm
chemiosmosis
(chemi osmosis)
a process by which atp is formed in mitochondria as protons flow down a proton gradient through the atp synthetase complex in the cristae membrane
What is the Main purpose of the Krebs Cycle(citric acid cycle)
to provide high-energy electrons in the form of FADH2 and NADH to be passed onward to the electron transport chain.
After the Krebs Cycle Forms the electrons in the form of FADH2 and NADH they are passed over to the transport chain. Where is the transport chain?
Mitochondrial membrane
The high-energy electrons contained in NADH and FADH2 are passed on to a series of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial membrane.
The next step during the electron transport chain is chemiosmosis (chemi osmosis)
Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis - The electrons removed from the molecules in glycolysis and citric acid follow a series of cytochromes on the mitochondrial membrane, while the h+ (hydrogen ions) (protons) are pumped across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. These protons flow through ATP synthase enzyme molecules, and thereby release energy which drives the formation of ATP molecules.
Substrate - Leval Phosphorylation
Process that produces a small amount of
durring glycosis.