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58 Cards in this Set

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What is a chromosome? what does it consist of?
A thread like gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells and most visible during mitosis and meiosis. Chromosomes consist of DNA and proteins (chromatin).
What is chromatin?
DNA and associated proteins.
What is a gene?
A basic unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located on the chromosomes in eukaryotes.
What is a genotype?
The genetic makeup of an organism.
What is Phenotype?
The observable expression of a trait, physical characteristics. e.g. hair/eye color.
What is a nucleotide?
An organic monomer consisting of a 5 carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. They are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
What is DNA?
deoxyribonucleic acid. A sequential series of joined nucleotides.Double helix structure. The genetic material found in the nucleus of a cell.
What is RNA?
Ribonucleic acid. found in nucleus and cytoplasm. makes proteins after transcription and translation of DNA.
What is nondisjunction?
When the parent cell does not split during meiosis 1 or 2 resulting in too many sex chromosomes or not enough.
What is the triplet code?
A code of 3 bases in DNA also known as a codon that code for one amino acid.
What is a codon?
A triplet code of 3 bases of DNA that code for a specific amino acid.
What is an anticodon?
A sequence of 3 bases on tRNA that are complementary to the codon on the DNA template.
What is biotechnology?
Genetic engineering is the use of technology to alter the genomes of organisms.
What happens during transcription?
It occurs in the nucleus. The DNA unwinds and is used as a template for mRNA. mRNA matches triplet code in DNA and forms bases in 3's called codons.
What happens during translation?
The mRNA carries the codons to the cytoplasm where the tRNA has the anticodon once the codon matches with the anticodon the coresponding amino acid is released and joined to another amino acid in the ribosome to syntehsize a protein.
What is keratin?
A type of protein that wool is made out of.
What is Collagen?
A protein that forms bones, ligaments, cartilage. Variations in collagen structure give strength, flexibility and resillience.
What is a karyotype?
a chart arranging chromosome pictures according to their size, grouped by pairs of homologs. The display of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell.
What is an enzyme?
A biological catalyst that speeds up the chemical reactions by properly positioning the substrates. They are proteins.
What is a substrate?
The reactants of the chemical reactions that enzymes speed up.
What is the active site?
The reaction center of an enzyme. Where the substrate binds.
What does it mean if a trait is dominant?
If you possess one dominant allele, it will cover up the other allele. That trait will show through.
What does it mean if a trait is recessive?
To show, you'd need both recessive alleles. a dominant allele will cover this up.
What is an Autosome?
It is any of the chromosomes besides the two sex chromosomes.
What is a ribosome and what does it do?
it is the site where amino acids are joined in DNA replication.
What is Dystrophin?
it links the cytoskeleton to a membrane protein. it's not made when a person has muscular dystrophy.
What is a polypeptide?
a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
What is an allele?
alternate forms of a gene.
What does it mean to be homozygous?
when both alleles are the same. DD dd. it can be homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive.
What does it mean to be heterozygous?
When both alleles are different. Dd
What is Leptin?
A protein hormone produced by fat to signal sufficient calorie intake.
What does it mean to be haploid?
When there is half the number of chromosomes. 23
What does it mean to be diploid?
When you have both sets of chromosomes. 46.
What does somatic mean?
any cell besides the sperm and egg cells.
What did Rosalind Franklin do?
She and maurice wilkins took pictures of DNA molecules using x-ray crystallography. Allowed Watson and Crick to propose the structure of the DNA.
Who were Francis Crick and James Watson?
They won the nobel prize for discovering the structure of DNA.
Who was James Herrick?
He discovered sickle cell anemia.
Who was Gregor Mendel?
A monk who first discovered inheritance patterns in pea plants.
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46
Where in the cell is DNA?
In the nucleus
Where in the cell is RNA?
In the cytoplasm
What three things compromise a nucleotide?
Phosphate, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
Who discovered the structure of DNA?
Francis crick and James Watson
What is the structure of DNA?
A Double helix with a phospate and sugar backbone and nitrogen base rungs.
What four bases are in DNA?
Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.
What kind of bonds are there between the complimentary bases in DNA?
hydrogen bonds
which bases are complimentary to one another?
Adenine to thymine and Guanine to cytosine.
How many bonds are between each pair?
Two hydrogen bonds between adenine and thymine. Three hydrogen bonds between Guanine and Cytosine.
Is DNA directional? in which way?
yes. They are anti parallel from five prime to three prime.
What kind of replication does DNA have? What does this mean?
Semi-conservative replication means that a new strand formsby pairing complementary bases with the old strand. Each strand has one new and one old DNA strand.
What are the bases in RNA?
Adenine Uracil Guanine and Cytosine
What are the similarities between DNA and RNA?
both nucleic acids
composed of nucleotides
have sugar-phosphate backbone
have four different types of bases
What are the differences between DNA and RNA
DNA-found in nucleus
RNA-found in nucleus and cytoplasm
DNA-the genetic material
RNA-Helper to DNA
DNA-sugar is deoxyribose
RNA-sugar is ribose
DNA-bases A T C G
RNA-bases A U C G
DNA-double stranded
RNA-single stranded
DNA-is transcribed
RNA-is translated
Where in the cell does transcription occur?
In the nucleus
What is the process of transcription?
The DNA unwinds and mRNA is coded from the triplet code of one DNA strand.
Where in the cell does translation occur?
In the cytoplasm
What is the process of translation?
the mRNA carries the Code to the ribosome where it codes for an amino acid which builds a protein.
How many bases are there in a codon?
three