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79 Cards in this Set

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How to write a genus and species name.
Genus name capilitised, species name not; both must be italicized or underlined
species
a series of populations of closely related and similar organisms
major classification categories
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
taxonomy
branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms with reference to their position in the kingdom
dichotomous key
identify organisms based on a series of paired choices
anterior
head region
posterior
tail end
dorsal
back side
ventral
front side
medial
mid line of body
lateral
sides of body
distal
a part that is farthest from a point of reference
proximal
a part that is nearest to a point of reference
pectoral
chest region
pelvic
hip region
frontal plane
divided body into dorsal and ventral
sagittal plane
divides into right and left halves
transverse plane
cuts through a dorsoventral and right-left axis at right angles
grades of organization
protoplasmic; cellular; cell-tissue; tissue-organ; organ-system
protoplasmic
unicellular; protoplasm within cell differentiated into organelles
cellular grade
division of labour among cells; may become organized into tissues (phylum porifera)
cell-tissue grade
aggregation of tissues into organs (phylum cnidaria)
tissue-organ grade
aggregation of tissues into organs (phylum platyhelminthes)
organ-system
organs work together to perform a function
spheric symmetry
any plane which passes through the center and divides body into equal, mirrored halves; in protozoans
radial symmetry
a plane passing through the longitudinal axis divides body into similar halves; phylum porifera, cnidaria, echinodermata
bilateral symmetry
a sagittal plane divides organism into two mirrored halves; complex phyla
zygotes
what sexually reproducing organisms begin life as
blastula stage
when embryo is a ball of cells
gastrula stage
development of germ layers; development of organs
diploblastic animal
two germ layers; ectoderm and endoderm
tripoblastic animal
three cell layers; ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
coelom
body cavity in tripoblastic animals; fluid-filled space surrounding gut that is lined with tissue
cephalization
process by which specialization, particularly of th esense organs and appendhages becomes localized in head end of the animal
phylum porifera
many pores
pinococytes
help control size of water entrances and exits; able to phagocytize food particles
porocytes
intracellular canal through which water passes on way to spongocoel
spongocoel
large central cavity in sponge
choanocytes
create water currents by means of their flagella to try to trap food and phagocytize it
mesohyl
gelatinous matrix
amoebocytes
free-moving cells within mesohyl; transport, digest, store food, expel wastes, form gemmules, produce spongin/spicules
spongin
secreted by amoeboid cells; very resistant to digestion/decay; phylum porifera
spicules
microscopic crystal-like structures formed by amoebocytes
ascon body type
simplest; vase shaped with a large central spongocoel lined with choancytes
osculum
where water and food particles flow in through the pores in the body wall; in ascon
sycon body type
infolding of body walls; have central cavity and complex series of canals; enters via intercurrent canals, passes through body into radial canals, exits through osculum
leucon body type
most complex/most common; composed of solid masses of cells which are perforated by canal systems and choanocyte-lined hcambers; most efficient
asexual reproduction
budding off new individuals from the tissues of old ones
gemmules
consist of a mass of mesohyl cells surrounded by a protective coat strenthened by spicules; winter bodies
sexual reproduction
eggs and sperm are released into water by same individual
monoecious
when possesses male and female reproductive structyures
phylum porifera three classes
class calcarea, hexactinellida, demospongiae; based on skeletal system
class calcarea
marine sponges; live at depths of 100m attached to solid support; 1, 3, 4 armed spicules composed of calcium carbonate; may be ascon, sycon, leucon
class hexatinellida
glass sponges; deep-water; 6 rayed spicules; no spongin; bodies cylindrical
class demospongiae
95% of sponge species; treelike upright bodies contain spongin; 1-4 rayes of spicules; have leucon body type
phylum cnidaria
needle; radially symmetrical; jellyfish, etc; diploblastic; no true organs; tentacles; two body types- polyp, medusa
eumetazoan branch
characterized by organization of cells into tissues
sac-type gastrovascular cavity
where a single opening serves as mouth and anus; can ingest larger food
mesoglea
lies within two layers in phylum cnidaria; contains scattered cells, extensive nerve net
polymorphism
more than one body type
polp form
clindrical animals with mouse and tentacles at one end facing upwards
medusa
free-swimming, umbrella shaped creatures with mouth and tentacles on lower concave surface, facing downwards
class hydrozoa
polps dominant; produced by budding; small; have velum
velum
margin of bell projects inward to form a shelf; hydrozoa
class scyphozoa
true jellyfishes; medusa; velum; long arms
class anthozoa
flower animals; all marine; mose advanced; polyp; asexual and sexual
hydra
class hydrozoa; no brian, just loose network of nerve cells (nerve net); water held under pressure in body- hydrostatic skeleton
obelia
hydrozoan; forms colony of polyps; polyps produce medusa buds
phylum platehelminthes
flat worms; bilateral symmetry; tissues into organs; nervous system organized; gastrovascular system
acoelomates
no body cavity
non-parasitic platyhelminthes
developed organ systems;
parasitic platyhelminthes
systems have been reduced; have suckers; coating on outside; enlarged reproductive system;
three classes of platyhelminthes
turbellaria, trematoda, cestoda
class turbellaria
carnivores; feed through a prostusible pharynx; flatworms- dugesia
class trematoda
parasitic flukes; small, leaf shaped internal parasites
class cestoda
parasitic tapeworms; flattened and segmented
ectoparasites
live on external surfaces of host
endoparasites
live on inside of host
digenetic
two different host species in life cycle; (this is what flukes are)