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37 Cards in this Set

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Tetrad
homologous chromosomes paired up
recombination
crossing over (Meiosis I, prophase)
Independent assortment
random distribution of homologous chromosome pairs during meiosis
starting female cells in gamete formation
oogonia
starting male cells
spermatogonia
primary oocytes and spermatocytes
diploid cells that give rise to two other sets of diploid cells
polar bodies
nonfunctional cells produced during meiosis in females
cross-polinate
have one plant pollinate another
P generation
parental generation
first filial generation
offspring of the parental generation
allele
alternative form of a gene
LAw of Segregation
differ
homologous
same in size and function
chromatin
molecular complex, composed of DNA and proteins, that makes up the chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms
mitosis
separation of a cell's duplicated chromosomes prior to cytokinesis
cytokinesis
physical separation of one cell into two daughter cells
interphase
portion of cell cycle in which the cell simultaneously carries out its work and duplicates its chromosomes
M phase
mitotic phase
mitotic phase
portion cell cycle that includes both mitosis and cytokinesis
G1
gap one of interphase; normal cell operations adn cell growth
S
synthesis in Interphase: synthesis of DNA resulthing in the duplication of the chromosomes
G2
gap two of Interphase: cytoplasmic growth and preparation for cell division
Cell cycle
repeating pattern of growth, genetic duplication, adn division seen in most cells
How many chromosomes at the end of Prophase in humans?
46 chromosomes; 92 chromatids
microtubules
protein fibers that are part of the cell's cytoskeleton or internal fiber network
centrosome
cellular structure that acts as an organizing center for the assembly of microtubules
metaphase plate
a plane located midway between the poles of a dividing cell
beginning of mitosis marks the end of
interphase
mitosis has begun with prophase when
we can see chromosomes
In prophase:
MITOTIS BEGINS
-chromosomes take shape
-DNA condenses
-nuclear envelope begins to break down
-two centrosomes begin to move toward cellular poles, sprouting microtubules
microtubules
stretch the cell, move the cell's chromosomes around
mitotic spindle
microtubules active in cell division that form a cage around nuclear material and attatch to chromosomes
In metaphase:
ATTATCHMENT AND ALIGNMENT
-microtubules form cage around cell's former nucleus
-other microtubules attatch to sister chromatids and align them at metaphase plate
-chromatids now face pole opposite that of its sister chromatid
In Anaphase:
SEPARATION
-genetic material divides:
-sister chromatids moved to
opp. poles in the cell
-chromatids become chromosomes
-microtubules pull the chromatids to the opp. poles
In Telophase:
(and cytokinesis) EXIT FROM MITOSIS
-newly independent chromosomes unwind and lose shape
-mitotic spindle breaks down
-new nuclear membranes (envelopes)forming
-results in 2 finished daughter nuclei lying in one elongating cell
-
Meanwhile, in Cytokinesis:
(and telophase) EXIT FROM MITOSIS
-began in anaphase
-cell maembrane pinches together
-membranes on each side fuse together
-one cell becomes two
--~--~--~--~----~--~--~--~--
-works through tightening of contractile ring
-cleavage furrow results
-consequently, fibers in mitotic spindle pushed together until membrane fusion splits cell into 2
-interphase begins
membrane fusion
membranes on each half of the hourglass circle toward each other and then fuse