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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 6 processes (properties) of living things?
1. Eat & Grow
2. Move in response to signals
3. Sex/Reproduction
4. Developmental Processes
5. Age & Die
6. Evolution & Mutation
When is a cell dead (4)?
1. Colony (clone) formation
2. ATP Content
3. Selective Transport
4. Attachment to a Matrix
Are viruses cells?
No -- they are much smaller
What are the 5-7ish Animal Kingdoms?
1. Arche bacteria
2. Eu bacteria
3. Protista
4. Plantae
5. Fungi
6. Animalia
7. Viruses
Chemicals or a combination of chemicals that stabilize changes in pH (by taking up excess H+ or OH-)
Water loving; soluble in water
Water hating; not soluble in water
smallest unit of a living thing
a group of cells with a common structure and function
a number of tissues and organized for a particular task
an individual; complex individuals contain organ systems
several organisms of the same kind in a particular area
numerous, interacting populations in a particular area
a community plus the environment
the capacity to do work
process that transforms solar energy into chemical energy in the bonds of organic nutrient molecules
descent with modification
natural selection
a genetic change that causes species to be better suited for a particular environment
inductive reasoning
when one uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a complete, whole idea
deductive reasoning
using if, then statements
a possible explanation for a natural event
Principle/Law/Theory of Evolution
All living things have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to a particular way of life
ionic compound
when negatively and positively charged ions are attracted together
covalent bond
when two atoms share electrons to become stable (an octet)
release hydrogen ions; dissolving in water
substances that take H+ ions or release OH- ions
DNA = Deoxyribonucleic acid
genetic material that stores info regarding its own replication
What are the 3 types of RNA (ribonucleic acid)?
messenger, transfer, ribosomal RNA
ATP = adenosine triphosphate
nucleotide that supplies energy for synthetic reactions
Functional Groups
A specific combination of bonded atoms that always reacts in the same way:
1. Hydroxyl
2. (Carbonyl)
3. Carboxyl
4. Amino
5. Sulfhydryl
6. Phosphate
largest type of macromolecules (Ex: Carbs, Proteins, Nucleic Acids)
a large number of the same type of subunits
dehydration reaction
Used to synthesize (put together) any type of macromolecule; an OH and H are removed in rxn
hydrolysis reaction
Uses water to degrade (break down) a macromolecule; OH and H each attach to a separate subunit
single sugar molecule; multiple of CH2O; many hydroxyl's (so polar & soluble)
What is a disaccharide and how is it formed?
two monosaccharides that joined during a dehydration rxn
polymers of monosaccharides (many monosaccharides); some function as short-term energy storage molecules; Ex: starch, cellulose, glycogen
glucose stored in plants becomes starch; type of polysaccharide
glucose stored in animals becomes glycogen
polysaccharide; the most abundant of all carbohydrates; animals can't digest it (boo)
Are lipids soluble?
NO! They are insoluble in water
Protein Functions (8)
1. Enzymes
2. Hormones and growth factors
3. Receptors in membranes for signals to cell
4. cell movement and shape
5. cell glue
6. oxygen transport
7. solute transport across membranes
8. protect and organize genetic material
What are amino acids and what types of bonds do they form?
subunits of proteins; bonds together to make peptide bonds; polar and charged allows solubility
peptide bond
covalent bond between 2 amino acids (where the water should meet)
2 or more amino acids bonded together
primary structure of proteins
it's own particular sequence of amino acids
What is the secondary structure and what holds it together?
either coiled (alpha helix) or folds (beta pleated sheet); hydrogen bonding holds it together
tertiary structure
folding and twisting to form a 3D polypeptide; hydrogen, ionic, and covalent bonds are used
quaternary structure
just like tertiary structure (3D), only with more than one polypeptide
prokaryote cell
cell that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, either Bacteria or Archaea
a semifluid solution encased by the plasma membrane, contains enzymes which speed up the reactions
cell wall
rigid, maintains shaped of the cell
nucleic regions (pro cell)
contain DNA and a fibrous region
RNA surrounded by proteins in all cells; prokaryote and eukaryote cells; mix of proteins and rRNA
plasma membrane (pro cell)
inside wall of the cell, flexible
eukaryote cell
cell which has a nucleus
nucleus (only eu cell)
membrane-bound and contains DNA
organelle (eu cell)
membrane enclosed, sub-cellular structure w/specialized function/s
nucleus (Eu cell)
contains chromatin (DNA) and 2 membranes; acidic; histones (main structure of chromatin); chromatin becomes chromosomes
Nucleolus (eu cell)
black dots; produces ribosomal RNA
Nucleoplasm (eu cell)
fluid inside nucleus
Cytoplasm (eu cell)
fluid outside nucleus
mitochondria (eu cell)
organelle; plants and animals; generates ATP; surrounded by 2 membranes and mitochondrial DNA
Plastids (eu cell)
organelle; plants only; contains 2 membranes and plastid DNA
Endoplasmic reticulum (eu cell)
system of membranous channels and saccules; physically continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope
Rough ER (eu cell)
ribosomes; synthesizes and modifies proteins
smooth ER (eu cell)
no attached ribosomes; sythesizes lipids
microbodies (eu cell)
organelle; gets rid of free radicals
golgi apparatus (eu cell)
organelle; traffic director that looks like stack of pancakes; sorts and packages proteins and lipids
lysosome (eu cell) and what does it lead to?
organelle; house cleaner; missing 1 enzyme leads to fatal Tay-Sachs disease
vacuole (eu cell)
organelle; stores substances and controls amount of water
cytoskeleton (eu cell)
2 proteins involved in moving cells: tublin-microtubles, and actin-microfilaments
plasma and organelle membrane (eu cell)
regulates entrance and exit of molecules in cell
cellular matrix (eu cell)
extra space
enclosed in the inner membrane of mitochondria; contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes
phospholipid bilayer
a plasma membrane, separating the internal environment of cell from external; regulates molecs in and out of cell; contains phosphate, water-loving heads (touching water), and hydrophobic tails
type of lipid found in plasma membrane; regulates fluidity by strengthening the membrane
passive transport
no energy needed, involves diffusion, high to low concentration; osmosis; small molecs
active transport
requires carrier protein and ATP (energy); low to high concentration; exo- or endo- cytosis
concentration gradient
molecs follow from high to low concentration
movement of molecs from high to low concentration (down their conc gradient) until equil is established
diffusion of water across a differentially (selectively) permeable membrane due to conc differences
isotonic solutions
solute conc and water conc inside and outside the cell are equal; no net gain or loss of water
hypotonic solutions
solute conc is lower than water concentration; cells swell or burst
hypertonic solution
solute conc is higher than water conc (water leaves the cell); results in shrinking or shriveling of the cell
carrier proteins
type of protein in which it binds with a molec and changes shape to move the molec across the membrane
carrier proteins
type of protein in which it binds with a molec and changes shape to move the molec across the membrane
facilitated transport
uses transport proteins to pass membrane through protein channels; no energy needed (because goes down conc gradient - high to low)
active transport
proteins use energy to move a substance through plasma membrane against its conc gradient (low to high)
transporting large molec, using energy, OUT of cell using vesicle formation
taking a large molec, using energy, into a cell by using a sac-like vesicle; one way is phagocytosis - engulfing entire cells
exergonic rxns
▲G is negative; energy is released; less energy at end than beginning; spontaneous
endergonic rxns
▲G is positive; non-spon; more energy at end than beginning; energy is consumed
adenosine triphosate; energy; generated from ADP
adenosine diphosphate; generates ATP
coupling rxns
when the energy released from an exergonic rxn is used to drive an endergonic rxn
protein molec used as a catalyst to speed up a chem rxn - doesn't change rxn, only speed
the reactants in an enzymatic rxn, particular to that enzyme
activation energy
energy that must be added to cause molecs to react w/one another; enzymes lower Ea, but not ▲G
active site
one small part of the enzyme that fits together with the substrate; undergoes a slight shape change to accomodate the substrate
what happens to an enzyme when the temperature increases? Why?
Enzyme activity increases because higher temps mean more effective collisions between enzyme and substrate
What is the "Secret of Life"?
Cells drive chemical reactions, living requires energy
eventually, when temp gets too high, and enzyme activity declines as it can no longer bind to the substrate
feedback inhibition
regulates how much of a product is bound to its active site; can lead to enzyme inhibition which prevents the enzyme from combining with its substrate
allosteric site
another enzyme inhibitor which shuts down production of a product; another site than the active site
loss of e-; takes place at the same time of reduction; occurs during photosynthesis and cellular respiration
gain of e-; takes place during oxi (exchanging e-); occurs during photosynthesis and cellular respiration
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; coenzyme of redox rxn; postive charge (duh); accepts e- and H+, later passes them through a metabolic pathway to CO2 to make glucose
cellular respiration
(opposite of photosynthesis) glucose + O2 -> CO2 + H20 + energy
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; positive charge (duh); coenzyme; oxidizes; accepts 2e- and 1H+
How is ATP produced in cellular respiration?
Mitochondria use energy released from glucose breakdown to build ATP molecs (using the e- transport system)
electron transport chain
series of membrane-bound carriers that pass e- from one carrier to another; energy is released throughout, producing ATP
What is the overall effect of the e- transport chain?
redox rxns occur, energy is produced -> ATP
ATP synthase complexes
particles that span a membrane of a cell which allow H+ ions to flow down their electrochemical gradient, leads to production of energy for ATP synthase enzyme
ATP synthase
enzyme to ezymatically produce ATP from ADP + Phosphate
cellular respiration
cellular process requiring oxygen and gives off CO2; usually breaks down glucose
In cellular respiration rxn, what is oxi, what is red?
glucose is oxidized to CO2; oxygen is reduced to H20
coenzyme of redox rxn; accepts 2 e- + H+ -> NADH
another coenzyme of redox rxn; sometimes used instead of NAD+; accepts 2e- + 2H+ -> FADH2
What are the 4 steps to breakdown glucose?
glycolysis, transition rxn, citric acid cycle, e- transport system
1st step to breakdown glucose: outside mitochondria, in cytoplasm, glucose is broken -> pyruvate; results in NADH + energy (ATP)
transition reaction
2nd step in the complete breakdown of glucose: inside mito, pyruvate is oxi, NADH is produced, CO2 is removed
Krebs/citric acid cycle
3rd step in the complete breakdown of glucose: inside mito's matrix, series of oxi rxn's resulting in NADH, FADH2, and ATP
e- transport chain
4th step in complete breakdown of glucose: in mito, series of carriers that accept and pass along e- until received by O2 -> H2O; energy is released, ATP is produced
end process of glycolysis; depending on oxy, may be involved in fermentation
when there isn't enough oxy in the cell, glucose is incompletely metabolized, depending on organism (i.e. lactate, CO2, or alcohol)
describe the structure of mitochondrion (in relation to cellular respiration)
Outer and Inner membranes (glycolysis occurs outside of mito); intermembrane space (inbetween, duh); cristae-folds of inner membrane (e- transport system occurs here); and the matrix-innermost compartment filled with gel-like fluid (transition rxn and citric acid cycle occur here)
glycolysis followed by the reducation of pyruvate by NADH -> (lactate OR alcohol) + CO2; anaerobic
something which does not require oxygen (Ex: fermentation)
nuclear division that reduces the # of chromosomes (chromos) from diploid to haploid
half the # of diploid chromos
reproductive cells, usually sperm and egg
homologous chromos come together and line up side by side due to a means of attraction still unknown during meiosis I; results in a bivalent
result of a synapsis during meiosis I: 2 homologous chromos that stay in close association during the first 2 phases of meiosis I
What are the 4 phases of each meoisis' (I and II)?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Prophase I
1st step in meiosis: nuclear division occurs between homologous chromos, synapsis occurs to form bivalents, chromos condense and are ready for step 2
Metaphase I
2nd step in meiosis: (prometaphase occurs right before); bivalents recombine themselves (ensures genetic differences)
Anaphase I
3rd step in meiosis: homologous chromos of each bivalent separate and move to opposite poles, sister chromatids are identical
Telophase I
4th step in meiosis: nucleoli appear; cell divides into 2 cells
Metaphase II
haploid # of chromos align
Anaphase II
sister chromatids separate
Telophase II
there are 4 haploid cells
when an organism has two identical alleles
when an organism has two different alleles
the alleles an individual receives at fertilization, indicated by letters
refers to physical appearance of the individual
any chromosome other than a sex (X or Y) chromosome (gametes)
incomplete dominance
when the heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype between that of either homozygote (Ex: Red + White = Pink)
gene linkage
existence of several alleles on the same chromosome
What are Mendel's 3 Laws and describe them?
1. Law of Dominance: 1 trait is dominant
2. Law of Segregation: 1 trait has random segregation
3. Law of Independent Assortment: more than 1 trait has more than 1 pair of chromosomes
sex linkage
is the phenotypic expression of an allele that is dependent on the sex of the individual and is directly tied to the sex chromosomes (when gene is on either x or y); Ex: color blindness
autosomal dominant inheritance
when RR is not the dominant trait - it is recessive or something inbetween; non-sex determining; Ex: Huntington's Disorder
improper segregation of chromosomes in Meiosis I or II; Ex: Down Syndrome
degree to which a phenotype/trait shows up in an individual
A karyotype is the complete set of all chromosomes of a cell of any living organism. The chromosomes are arranged and displayed (often on a photo) in a standard format: in pairs, ordered by size. Karyotypes are examined in searches for chromosomal aberrations, and may be used to determine other macroscopically visible aspects of an individual's genotype, such as sex (XX vs. XY pair).
What are the 4 types of Non-Disjunction?
1. XO (baby has X but no y)
2. XXX (1/1000)
3. XXY (1/2000)
4. XYY (1/2000)