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61 Cards in this Set

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define: cell
smallest living unit of life; Bacteria is single-celled but is a complete organism
define: tissue
a group of cells that have a similar function
define: organ
a group of different tissues that perform a specific function
define: organ system
also known as "system level", several organs that will perform a common fuction
The Cell Theory
1. the cell is the basic living unit of life
2. all organisms are composed of cell(s)
3. all cells come from pre-existing cells
Eukaryotic
has a nucleus
Prokaryotic
-does not have a nucleus
-are mainly bacteria
cell wall
gives cell structure (shape), and provides support and protection.
Plants have what kind of cell wall?
cellulose
Fungi have what kind of cell wall?
chitin
Animals have what kind of cell wall?
no cell wall
cilia
for motility;
numerous little projections
flagella
for motility;
tend to be long and hairlike
cell membrane
just under cell wall; is where animal cells start; made up of phospholipids (40%) and proteins (60%); semi-selective membrane
simple diffusion
movement of small molecules from high concentration to low concentration; can go either way, it just depends where the highest concentration is;
works best with small molecules
osmosis
movement of water across a selective membrane
facilitated diffusion
involves large molecules; molecules will attach to proteins in cell membrane and then are drug in and released inside cell
cytoplasm
all of area from membrane to nucleus;
the fluid element of cell;
can be as much as 90% water;
other components are floating in cytoplasm
organelles
the solid intracellular components
nucleus
larger structure within the cell; has own membrane inside is a 2nd ball called nucleolus
nucleolus
where all genetic material is housed (DNA)
nucleoplasm
cytoplasm inside the nucleus
chromosomes
double coiled strand of DNA
endoplasmic reticlulm
there is smooth & rough;
smooth is for nonprotein products;
rough is for attached to rough ER
ribosomes
job is to produce protein;
is attached to the ER, makes up the rough part
golgi apparatus
process & package proteins;
look like stacks of pancakes
mitochondria
produce ATP's (energy)
bean shaped
centrioles
usually located at one end of the other;
a series of tubes laid side by side;
used during cell division- produces spindle fibers that will attach to chromosomes and pull them apart for mitosis
lysosomes
chemical pockets located throughtout cell; most contain lysosyme which is used to break down bacteria, therefore is most common in white blood cells
vacuoles
spaces within cell-usually for gas or water storage. ex: H2O or O2.
chloraplast
produce chloroplhyll- used for photosynthesis in plants;
not in animals
What are the phases of mitosis?
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
How long does
Interphase
last?
about 15.3 hours
How long does mitosis average?
16 hours
what are the different stages of interphase?
G1, S phase, and G2
Describe interphase
carries on normal everyday activities. Toward end, goes into a series of subphases.
G1
organelles double
S phase
DNA replication occurs - HAVE to HAVE duplication
G2
high rate of protein synthesis
Prophase
chromosomes will thicken, shorten, and duplicate.-
Nucleur membrane will fragment and will eventually disappear.-
Spindle fibers will begin to form from the centrioles
Metaphase
chromosomes move to equatorial plat ( move to middle of cell)
Anaphase
chromosomes seperate and move to poles.
-cytokinesis occurs (cell division)
Telephase
chromosomes reach the poles.
- nucleur membrane reforms.
- ends when cytokinesis is complete
What is a Karyotype?
a display of chromosome cut from a photo of a splat and arranged in pairs
Which chromosome(s) is/are the
"Autosomes"?
pairs 1 through 22
which chromosome(s) is/are the "sex chromosomes"?
pair #23
Down Syndrome
have Trisomy 21.
-will have 3 #21's.-
Typically shorter, stockier, very distinct look because of the extra layer of fat under eyebrows. eyes appear oriental-like, stubby fingers, lower IQ's.
is a tendency in older females to give birth to Downs babies
Kleinefelter Syndrome
have XXY chromosomes.
considered neither male nor female but have the appearence of male. are sterile have breast development, IQ's are lower
Patau Syndrome
Trisomy 13
- increase in heart and nerve problems
- to live for one year is extremely rare, if even born.
- exhibit same as Edward Syndrome
Edward Syndrome
Trisomy 13.
- increase in heart and nerve problems.
- to live 1 year is rare, if even born.
- exhibits same as Patau Syndrome
Turner Syndrome
is just one single "X" .
-text will usually write as "X0"
- appears female, shorter, ovaries nonfunctional, tendency to heart problems, no adverse mental affects, have problems with distances
Jacobs Syndrome
known as a supermale because of "XYY".
-appear male, tendency to be larger/taller, may or may not be sterile, lower IQ's.
Fragile X Syndrome
could be male of female (XY) or (XX).
a part of the X chromosome will break off
metafemale
"XXX" or more X's.
-numerous X's, it forms "bar-bodies".
-appear female, XXX appears normal.
- menstruation irregular, menopause occurs about mid- 30's.
-XXXXXXXX are normally nonreproductive
Trisomy 22
have 3 #22 chromosomes.
-heart problems
Monosomy 21
one 1 #21 chromosome
- heart/ nerve problems
Cri Du Chat
have a partial #5 chromosome.
- skull begins of ossify immediatly upon birth.
-brain presses on skull because skull not expanding.
- causes to cry a lot and cry sounds like a cat
- life span typically less than 1 year
Muscular Dystrophy
lacks gene that produces a protein that controls calcium release
Color Blindness
genes to see Red & Green are located on X, so if missing from X, men are color blind for that color.
mostly occurs in males
Hemophilia
lack of factor 8 gene (written as VIII), which produces protein for clotting.
- mostly occurs in males
sex-linked disorders
female is carries but does not normally express symptoms (because female has a "back-up" X chromosome, male does not), male will express symptoms