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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of the reproductive system?
reproduction - if there is no reproduction, extinction occurs
What do the testes do?
produces sperm and secondary sex hormone
What does the epididymis do?
stores sperm
What do the seminal vesicles do?
adds liqueds that are slightly basic in Ph
What does the prostate Gland do?
add more liqueds, mostly water and a lot of fructose to give energy to the sperm
What does the ejaculatory duct do?
is inside the prostate gland, surrounds urethra, provides force for ejaculation
What does the urethra do?
tube leading form bladder to outside voiding urine and semen
What does the Cowper's gland do?
add more fluid that is slightly basic
What is the penis?
the external portion, it contains cavernous tissue.
What is the glans penis?
knobby portion at the end of the penis. very sensitive and there for sexual arousal
What is the foreskin?
skin that covers the glans penis and what is removed during circumsision
What is semen?
collection of sperm and fluids that is added as it goes through the reproductive system
describe sperm?
main component in semen, have flagella and have 23 chromosomes
what is a good sperm count?
50-100 mil/ mL
what is the ovary?
produces the egg and primary sex hormones
What is the oviduct?
conducts the egg from ovaries, where fertilization occurs
what is the uterus?
muscular chamber where a fertilization egg will be implanted and grow into a fetus
What is the cervix
opening of uterus
What is the vagina?
muscular tube - 2 functions (1)copulation, (2)birth canal
What is the vulva?
series of folds on exit of vagina
What is the Labia Majora?
outer most fold of skin, larger
What is the Labia Minora?
inner most fold of skin, smaller
What is the glans clitoris?
above or anterior to the folds for sexual arousal
In the uterine cycle, what occurs during days 1-5?
menstruation - estrogen levels are down, the lining of uterus desintagrates
In the uterine cycle, what occurs during days 6-13?
estrogen levels are up, around the egg the tissue in ovary will swell
In the uterine cycle, what occurs during day 14?
ovulation, the tissue bursts and egg breaks loose and released from ovary
In the uterine cycle, what occurs during days 15-28?
uterus begins to rethicken and if egg is fertilized then will be implanted
What are the breasts?
mammary glands - mammaries
What does Follicle Stimulating Hormone do in females?
promotes egg production
What does Follicle Stimulating Hormone do in males?
promotes sperm production
What does Luteinizing Hormone do in females?
promotes ovulation
What does Luteinizing Hormone do in males?
promotes testosterone formation
What does Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone do in females?
control the luteinizing of ovulation
What does Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone do in males?
control the luteinizing of testosterone formation
What does Estrogen do in females?
main hormone of female development of ovaries; primary sex hormone; secondary breast and body
What does Estrogen do in males?
lower levels in males cause smaller breasts and hair on face; all secondary
What does Testosterone do in females?
responsible for secondary characteristics
What does Testosterone do in males?
primary male sex hormone; development of testes and other sexual structures; secondary voice, hair, ect.
How effective is and what is a Vasectomy?
vas deferens cut and tied
How effective is and what is a Tubule Ligation?
oviducts are cut and tied
How effective is and what is a Hormonal Pill?
How effective is and what is a Male Pill?
How effective is and what is an IUD?
"inner uterine device"
plastic inserted into uterus
How effective is and what is a Diaphram?
latex cup over cervix
How effective is and what is a Cervical Cup?
latex suction that covers cervix
How effective is and what is a Condom?
85% latex over penis
How effective is and what is a Spermicidal Creams?
chemical that kills sperm
How effective is and what is a Douche?
How effective is and what is a RU 486?
abortant drug
"Day after Pill"
How effective is and what is a Depo-Provera?
injection - chemical that interrupts uterine cycle
How effective is and what are Implants?
progesterone release
How effective is and what is a Hysterectomy?
removal of part or all of uterus
How effective is and what is a Rhythm Method?
not having sex during ovulation
Reproductive disorder:
10% of US couples and children had them planned;
it may take 10 years to have 1 child
Reproductive disorder:
have no children - 15% of US couples
Reproductive disorder:
2 virus - HIV1 and HIV2 lowers immune system
Reproductive disorder:
Genital Warts
caused by HPV- external; can cause cervical cancer
Reproductive disorder:
Genital Herpes
caused by HSV2
Reproductive disorder:
caused by bacteria 'Neisseria gonorrhea' - venereal, causes urethritis and painful urination
Reproductive disorder:
caused by bacteria 'Chlamydia trachomatis' - #1 cause of blindness due to infection of newborns in birth canal
Reproductive disorder:
caused by bacteria 'Treponemia pallidum' - causes chancre soars - can eat away at nervous system and drive infected insane
Reproductive disorder:
Toxic Shock Syndrome
caused by bacteria 'Staphylococcus spp.' - blood infection, not tampons, not solely a female infection
'Pediculus humanus' and 'Pediculus pubis' - carry many infections; either species can occur anywhere on body
Reproductive disorder:
inflammation of prostate-
can happen for any # of reasons
Reproductive disorder:
Male Impotence
penis fails to remain erect
Reproductive disorder:
Male Infertility
low sperm count - below 20 million/ml
Reproductive disorder:
absence of menstruation in uterine cycle - #1 cause is malnurouishment
Reproductive disorder:
painful menstruation; forceful contractions of uterus during menstruation
Reproductive disorder:
Ovarian cyst
ovarian tissue that contains large amounts of fluid; not necessarily cancerous; can get enormous
Reproductive disorder:
uterine tissue growns into oviducts
Reproductive disorder:
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
collective term in any infection of pelvis; usually associated with females
Reproductive disorder:
Cervical Cancer
directly related to genital warts; occurs in young women; high fatality rate
Reproductive disorder:
Breast Cancer
cancer of breast - not too bad if caught early, fatality rate is very high if caught late
Parts of the
Nervous System?
brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Function of
Nervous System
(1) to transmit impulses
(2) react to those impulses
What is a neuron?
a nerve cell; the main part of the nervous system
What are the Sensory neurons?
carries impulse from a sensory organ to the interneuron
What are the Interneurons?
carries impulse within the central nervous system
What are the Motor neurons?
carries impulse from interneurons to a reactor muscle or gland
What makes up the central nervous system?
brain and spinal cord
what are the portions of the brain
(1) cerebrum
(2) cerebellum
(3) medulla oblongata
what is the corpus collosum
connects the 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum
What is the cerebrum
conscious portion of brain; all thought processes and all senses located here - includes personality; divided into 2 hemispheres
what is the cerebellum?
cauliflower shaped structure on back of cerebrum; control all muscle coordination, tone posture, balance, and control learned reflexes
what is the medulla oblongata
portion leading to spinal cord; controls the reflexes such as vomitting, sneezing, coughing, hiccups, ect. - also controls heart beat and respiratory
what is the spinal cord?
connect all the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system; responsible for some reflexes
What are the meninges
series of 3 membranes surrounding the central nervous system
what is the cerebrospinal fluid
between each membrane and inside brain and spinal cord
what is one function on the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid?
cushions the brain
what is the Peripheral Nervous System?
all nerves hanging off of central nervous system; all neurons exiting and entering the central nervous system
Nervous System Disorders:
defficiency of dopamine - dopamine is a chemical that allows impulses to happen; will affect the voluntary muscles and cause shaking
what is the circled area?
what is the circled area?
what is the area indicated?
myelin sheath
what is the structures pointed out?
node of ranvier
what are the areas indicated?
axon knobs
what are the knobs indicated?
Nervous System Disorder:
deffiency of GABA (a neural transmitter); leads to loss of muscle control to the point of thrashing, insanity and eventually death
Nervous System Disorder:
inflammation of the neurons
Nervous System Disorder:
Cerebral Palsy
a group of disorders that all have similar characteristics; similar characteristics are all some sort of disorder affecting the fetus; could be mental and/or physical; usually caused by starvation of, drug use of, radiation exposure to, and/or chemical exposure to the pregnant mother
Nervous System Disorder:
short duration, yet recurrant where neurons malfunction; person will lapse into a daze (most common) or could begin thrashing (not so common)
Nervous System Disorder:
have fat build-up around the neurons (the myelin sheath part); is genetic; occurs mostly in eastern European, mostly in people of Jewish descent; result in paralysis; happens in children and they usually don't live past 3 to 4 years
Nervous System Disorder:
blockage of the brain
Nervous System Disorder:
fairly common disorder; have problems with letters and/or numbers and/or words
Nervous System Disorder:
Reyes Syndrome
swelling of brain that can cause coma and death; typically in children; linked to virus and aspirin
Nervous System Disorder:
unknown cause;
mostly hits elderly;
probably some sort of neural transmitter defiency;
starts with memory loss and just gets worse
Nervous System Disorder:
inflammation on meninges (membranes around the brain and spinal cord);
could be any number of causes
Nervous System Disorder:
cases of involuntary sleep;
absolutely zero control over it;
usually predictable as to when it will happen
what is vision?
just a component of the nervous system;
eye does not see- it is only a receptor, the brain actually sees;
responsible for focusing light rays;
close objects;
can see a distance without the lens
color portion, adjusts to allow amounts of light
actually nothing, just a hole in the iris
the middle layer of eye;
absorbs light
outer-most part of the eye;
the white part;
kind of tough
outer-most lens- it is a lens;
responsible for seeing a distance
Vitreous Chamber
the entire inner chamber of the eye;
contains humor
contains a little bit of protein, but mostly water to allow light to shine through
layer on the back of the eye;
light receptors are: cones and rods and fovea centralis
light receptors for black and white and gray, basically light
receptors for color:
not very common in the animal world;
birds have them
Fovea Centralis
on the retina;
the point of best vision, the point where the light is focused
Optic Nerve
the main nerve that leads from the eye to the brain
What is
Refraction of Light?
the bending of light;
the lens bends the light and hopefully concetrates in on one point
What is
Focal Distance?
the distance between the lens adn the focal point
What is
Focal Point?
the point where all the light rays are conctrated
Vision Disorder:
the focal point is in front of the fovea centralis- easy to correct with concave lenses
Vision Disorder:
the focal point is behind the foveal centralis; easy to correct with covex lenses
Vision Disorders:
have an irregular cornea, jagged not smooth;
can be hard to correct
Vision Disorders:
protein inside lens becomes oxidized; oxidation will make it cloudy
Vision Disorder:
protein is oxidized between the lens and the cornea
Vision Disorder:
conjuctiva is the eyelid:
inflammation of the eyelid and eyeball;
commonly known as "pink-eye"