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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
circulatory system;
how many components?
There are 3 components; the pump (heart), the tubing (vessels) and the fluid (blood)
function of the circulatory system?
(1) regulates hormones
(2) regulates temp.
(3) regulates food
(4) regulates gases; mostly carbon dioxide and oxygen
(5) protection function (WBC)
What is the
Myocardium?
heart muscle
What is the
Septum?
seperates te right and left sides of the heart
What is the
Atrium?
chambers on top of the heart, smaller, not very muscular
What is the
Ventricle?
chambers on bottom of the heart, a bit larger, and more muscular
What is the
Atrioventricular Valves?
the valves between the atrium and ventricle
What is a valve for?
A valve is to prevent backflow
What is the Bicuspid valve?
valve between atrium and ventricle on left side
What is the Tricuspid valve?
valve beween atrium and ventricle on right side
What are the
Similunar Valves?
valves that exit ventricles
What is the Pulmonary valve?
goes into the pulmonary artery from the ventricle
What is the Aortic valve?
goes into the aorta from the ventricle.
What is the
Pulmonary Artery?
away from heart to lung
What is the
Pulmonary Vein?
to heart from lung
What is the
Aorta?
main artery leading out of left side of heart
What is the
Superior Vena Cava
goes into the right atrium
What is the
Inferior Vena Cava
goes into the right atrium
What is the
Coronary Arteries?
supplies the heart with blood
What are the
Coronary Veins?
supplies the heart with blood
What is the
Pericardium?
membranous sack that holds the heart in place
What is the
Endocardium?
membranes inside the heart- lining on the inside of the chambers
What is the heart sound
Lubb?
the atrioventricular valves slapping shut
What is the heart sound
Dubb?
the Similunar valves slapping shut
define
Cardiac Conduction
how the brain sends impulses to the heart and how the heart reacts
Sinus Node
(Sinoatrial Node, SA Node)
What does it do, and where is it located?
controls contraction of Atria, located in the right atrium, also called the pacemaker
Atrioventricular Node
(AV Node)
What does it do, and where is it located?
controls contractions of ventricules, located in the right atrium, controls via the bundle of HIS,
Bundle of HIS
carries impulse to contract from the Atrioventricular node to the ventricles
aorta
What structure is being pointed to?
aortic valve
What valve is being pointed to?
inferior vena cava
What structure is being pointed to?
left atrium
What structure is being pointed to?
left ventricle
What structure is being pointed to?
left ventricle
What structure is being pointed to?
bicuspid valve
What valve is being pointed to?
pulmonary artery
What structure is being pointed to?
pulmonary valve
What valve is being pointed to?
pulmonary vein
What structure is being pointed to?
right atrium
What structure is being pointed to?
right ventricle
What structure is being pointed to?
septum
What structure is being pointed to?
superior vena cava
What structure is being pointed to?
tricuspid valve
What valve is being pointed to?
Which way do arteries carry blood?
away from the heart
Which way do veins carry blood?
toward the heart
What do Capillaries do?
connect the arteries and veins.
What is the pulse?
an expansion and recoil of an artery wall
what is the average pulse?
about 80
In blood pressure, which # is the systolic?
and what is it?
the higher number.
the muscle as it contracts
In blood pressure, which # is the diastolic?
and what is it?
the lower number.
the heart at rest
average blood pressure
depends on age and gender
Function of the blood?
(1) gas exchange in RBC
(2) carrying nutrients
(3) protection provided by WBC
Composition of blood?
person has a average of about 5 liters of blood, at least 1/2 of blood is water.
Ph is about 7.3-7.4
Plasma:
percentage?
What is it?
*55%
*pretty much water with a few nutrients
Erythrocyte
percentage?
What is it?
*45%
*Hemoglobin on the red blood cells carry oxygen,
*No nucleus, cannot reproduce
*count of app. 5 mil./mm3
*responsible for gas exchange
Thrombocyte
percentage?
What is it?
*less than 1%
*platelets for clotting
*actually cell fragments
*count of app. 140-400 thousand/mm3
Leukocytes
percentage?
what are they?
* less than 1%
* phagocytic (eating other cells)
* 5,000 to 9,000/mm3
features of a granulocyte?
odd shaped nucleus, noticable granules
Neutrophil:
what does it do?
First to arrive and last to leave area of infection, come in large numbers
*most abundant*
Eosinophil:
What does it do?
attack parasites (ex: parasitic worms) and chemicals (ex. bee sting); causes some of the allergic reactions
Basophil:
What does it do?
produce histamine which causes inflammation
features of an Agranulocyte?
round nucleus, granules are much smaller and harder to see
what antigen does type A blood have?
antigen A
what antigen does type B blood have?
antigen B
What antigen does type AB blood have?
antigen A&B
What antigen does type O blood have?
no antigen
What antibody does a person with type A blood have?
antibody B (beta)
What antibody does a person with type B blood have?
antibody A (alpha)
What antibody does a person with type AB blood have?
no antibody
What antibody does a person with type O blood have?
antibodies A & B
What are the possible genetic genomes for a person with type A blood?
AA, AO
What are the possible genetic genomes for a person with type B blood?
BB, BO
What are the possible genetic genomes for a person with type AB blood?
AB only
What are the possible genetic genomes for a person with type O blood?
OO only
A person has type A blood, what kind of blood types can this person receive a blood donation from?
type A, type O
A person has type B blood, what kind of blood types can this person receive a blood donation from?
type B, and type O
A person has type AB blood, what kind of blood types can this person receive a blood donation from?
type A, B, AB, & O. type AB is a universal recepient
A person has type O blood, what kind of blood types can this person receive a blood donation from?
type O, only
type O is a universal donor
Define
Hypertension
high blood pressure;
35 mm of mercury above diastolic;
20 mm of mercury above systolic
Define
Stroke
portion of brain dies due to blockage; the damage that it causes depends on where it occurs and how big the blockage is
Define
Heart Attack
blockage in heart; the damage that is causes depends on where it occurs and how big the blockage is
Define
Varicose Veins
the vein wall is weakened and stretches, usually due to back flow
Define
Phlebitis
inflammation ofa vein, could be any number of reasons
Define
Murmur
leak in a heart valve, usually will fix itself
Define
Prolapse
a collapsed heart valve, very serious condition
Define
Arteriosclerosis
accumulation of cholesterol inside the artery; results in high blood pressure
Define
Aneurisms
a burst blood vessel; damage it causes depends on how big and where it occurs; could just result in a simple bruise
Define
Thrombus
an attached clot, attached to the inside wall of a vessel
Define
Embolus
a thrombus that has broken loose; a detached clot
Define
Cladication
just a fancy word for blockage
Define
Anemia
too few red blood cells, or too many nonfunctional red blood cells, trauma is number 1 cause
Define
Pernicious Anemia
red blood cells are extremely large; immune system will attack abnormally large red blood cells; caused by B12 defiecency in (mostly) anglo males; is genetic
Define
Thalassemia
also known as Mediterranean Anemia; red blood cell membrane is VERY thin, therefore easily rupture- mostly in people of Jewish descent; usually die before 1 year old
Define
Sickle-Cell Anemia
red blood cells are oddly shaped instead of round; reduces the ability to carry oxygen; usually found in any population around the equator
Define
Leukemia
uncontrolled production of white blood cells and therefore white blood cells own body; most are now treatable
Define
Polycythemia
abnormal increase in red blood cells which in turn increases volume thereby increases blood pressure
Define
Hemophilia
Free Bleeder due to factor VIII gene; is sex linked
How can you tell if a person is Rh positive or Rh negative?
the presence or the absence of the Rh antigen on the blood cell
What is an Rh factor baby?
very severe disorder that will affect the fetus and can cause miscarriage and/or deformities
What combonation must there be to produce an Rh factor baby?
Rh- mom and Rh + dad, any other combo and the baby is okay
what is the shot that doctors give to protect the fetus from the Rh factor is the baby is in danger?
Rhogam, it is an Rh factor inhibitor
What is the Rh factor?
a totally different antigen on the blood cell, you either have it or you don't