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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Light is defined by
what we can percieve
Radiometric light is measured by
electromagnetic radiation
The wavelength of the visible spectrum is between
A directional radiometric measurement is
A non-directional radiometric measurement is
Three types of measurements we might take when studying the effects of light
Behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical
A directional photometric measurement is
A non-directional photometric measurement is
A graph that might be useful in behavior with light is
a fluence:response curve
A microspectrophotometer tests
light absorbance
What kind of knockouts are best for behavior?
What is a transgenic animal?
when a gene is added, often from a different organism.
How does one create a behavioral action spectrum?
Generate a fluence:response curve for each wavelength

Set a criterion response

Plot the inverse (normalized)
Two dynamic components of the visual system are
iris, lens (both accomodate)
When energy increases
wavelength decreases and frequency increases
A function of oil droplets is to
Tighten the spectral sensitivity, disambiguates signal.
Two functions of the retinal pigment epithelium are
Phagocytosis, regeneration of rhodopsin from all-trans to 11-cis
The tapetum lucidum is
A reflective component that boosts light
Other areas that are light-sensitive in some non-mammalian animals are
The parietal and pineal, melanophores in frogs
joules/sec/cm2 or watts/cm2 are what kind of measurements?
lumens/cm2 is what kind of measurement?
Photopic is what kind of vision?
Daytime, cones
Scotopic is what kind of vision?
Nighttime, rods
When working with animals, we use ______________ measurements
What percentage of animals have eyes, light sensing organs, or none of the above?
How many phyla have eyes?
6 of 33
three types of optical systems are
Shadows, refracted, reflected
Limited number of eye types may be due to
The physical constraints of light:

Intensity, wavelength, polarization
Evolution of eyes from ___ to___ to _____ or _____ th _____
spot to cups to duplication of cups or photoreceptors then accessory organs such as lenses, irises, retinas, pupils, ommatidia
Eye cups allow us to know what?
The direction of light
What is Rhodopsin?
A heterotrimeric g-protein coupled receptor
What happens to All-trans retinal?
It gets transported to the RPE
What is the visual cycle?
All-trans --> Alcohol --> Aldehyde --> 11-cis
Scallops and lobsters use what kind of eye?
Reflected light
Why is an eye cup important?
Position of light
how many subtypes of eyes are there?
What kind of an eye is like a pinhole camera?
A shadow-detecting eye
Basic ciliary
PDE changes
Channels close (Hyperpolarization)
Basic Rhabdomeric Tranduction includes:
PLC hydrolyzes
PIP2 to IP3
Channels open (Depolarization)
What is considered the "master eye gene?"
In vertebrates, how is the lens formed?
It is induced
What is the ortholog of Pax6 in the fly?
What is aniridia caused by?
A mutation in PAX6
With PAX, the paired domain is involved in what?
With PAX, the homeobox domain is important in
Expression of photopigment and anterior eye (lens)
Arguments for monophyletic origins of eyes
PAX genes

Opsins are universal

rhabdomeric and ciliary are in both types of eyes.
What is important regarding the organ of hesse?
Argument against monophyletic origins
What is the basic unit that is used in all eyes?
What kinds of opsins are only in the animal kingdom
rhodopsin 2
What are lenses made of?
Crystallins. They are proteins.
How many crystallins are there?

Name 1

Lactose dehydrogenase
How many crystallins are found in all vertebrates?
Why use enzymes to make a lens? (2 reasons)
Increases a buildup of proteins in one place.

Lens must be tightly regulated, controlled.
Arguments for Polyphyletic origins of eyes
Organ of hesse

Molecular level of opsins shows difference

Abundance of crystallins
How does the lens avoid scattering light?
Gradient densities manipulate refractions
Bivalves are a good example of what kind of eyes?
Reflective and shadow eyes
Cephalopods are good examples of what kind of eyes?
Chambered refractive (rhabdomeric) eyes
If light is reflected on a concave or convex surface, at a 20 degree angle, what angle is it reflected at?
20 degrees
In the pectin, the ciliary photoreceptors are ________
Wolf spiders demonstrate
tapetal structures
The octopus eye is comprised of ______ photoreceptors.
The cod eye is comprised of ________ photoreceptors
The white part of the eye is called the
The colored part of the eye is called the
The gloopy part inside the eyeball is called the
The octopus eye is comprised of ______ photoreceptors.
The cod eye is comprised of ________ photoreceptors
The white part of the eye is called the
The colored part of the eye is called the
The gloopy part inside the eyeball is called the
The octopus eye is comprised of ______ photoreceptors.
The cod eye is comprised of ________ photoreceptors
The white part of the eye is called the
The colored part of the eye is called the
The gloopy part inside the eyeball is called the
The two parts of the eye that feed the retina are called
the choroid and vitreous
choroid capillaries do what
nourish, fenestrate
3 classes of interneurons are
horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells
What are the layers in order?
Outer nuclear
Outer synaptic
Inner Nuclear
Inner Synaptic
Ganglion Layer
Muller Cells
What are the parts of a photoreceptor? (4)
Outer segment
Inner Segment
Synaptic Terminal
Pedicles belong to
Spherules belong to
Cones terminate in the
Outer aspect of the outer plexiform layer
Explain the phototransduction cascade
-Light changes 11 cis to all trans

-This changes the conformation of the opsin

-This causes the opsin to bind g-protein (transducin)

-The transducin Alpha subunit trades GDP for GTP

-The transducin alpha activates PDE

-PDE causes cyclicGMP to become GMP

-cyclicGMP is needed by channels to stay open

Channels close, cell hyperpolarizes
Horizontal cells reside where?
outer axis of the inner nuclear layer
H1 cells receive input from
rods and cones
H2 cells receive input from
just cones
Horizontal cells are ______ coupled
electrically coupled
Bipolar cells come in ___ flavors
2 (on and off)
Rods go through what cell to get to ganglion cells
A2 amacrine cells
Amacrine cells are located in the
Inner nuclear layer
Ganglion cells are located in the
ganglion cell layer
Cell layers are
Outer, inner, nuclear, plexiform, ganglion
What is transduction?
The conversion of one form of energy into another
What is sensory transduction?
The conversion of energy from the environment into a biologically relevant signal.
What is our reality based on?
Our sensory systems
What sorts of conservation are important vis a vis our senses?
temporal and spatial
How many g-protein coupled receptors are olfactory in mice?
Second-order neurons create what kind of potentials?
Action. Digital.
Sensory neurons generally create what kind of potentials?
Graded. Generator, receptor. Analog.
AM is like what kind of neuron?
Primary sensory.
FM is like what kind of neuron?
Secondary sensory.
When is noise not a bad thing?
In the case of stochastic resonance.
What are 3 psychophysical methods for determining threshold?
-Method of constant stimuli
-Method of limits
-Method of adjustment
Light meters are ____metric