Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/248

Click to flip

248 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
living thing
organism
the science of life
biology
organisms composed of one cell
unicellular organisms
organisms composed of more than one cell
multicellular organisms
cells become different from each other as they multiply and collow the various roles supplied by genetic info
differentiation
stable level of all internal conditions
homeostasis
organisms transmit hereditary info to their offspring
reproduction
deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA
development of a single trait of an organism
gene
hereditary information between two parts of a single organism or two organisms of the same species is combined
sexual reproduction
hereditary info from different organisms if not combined
asexual reproduction
populations of organisms change over generations
evolution
organisms that have vertain favorable traits that are better able to reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits
natural selection
study of interactions between organisms
ecology
studying specific environmental communities
ecosystems
plants and unicellular organisms capture energy from sun and change into forms or energy that can be used to make living things
photosynthesis
organisms that make their own food
autotrophs
organisms that must take in food to meet energy needs
heterotrophs
the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the organism
metabolism
formation of two cells from an existing cell
cell division
the process by which an adult organism arises
develpoment
all info that scientists gather in answering questions
data
employs one of the five senses to perceive objects or events
observation
technique of using a small part to represent an entire population
sampling
a statement that explains observations and can be tested
hypothesis
a statement made in advance that states the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis
prediction
when a hypothesis is tested by carrying out an (blank)
experiment
based on a comparison of a control group and experimental group
controlled experiment
has an independent variable, stays the same
controlled group
dependent variable, one factor changes
experimental group
an explanation supported by data
model
a conclusion made on the basis of facts or premises rather than direct observations
inference
a broad and comprehensive statement of what is thought to be true
theory
an instrument that produces an enlarged image of an object
microscope
increase of an object's apparent size
magnification
power to show details clearly
resolution
slide holding specimen over the opening
stage
light passes through the specimen and through these
objective lenses
magnified image projected up through body of tube
ocular lenses
lenses moved into place by revolving
nosepiece
factor of enlargement
power of magnification
seven fundamental, that describe length, mass, time, and other quantities
base units
produced by the mathematical relationship between two base units
derived units
What are the six unifying themes of biology?
-cell structure and function
-stability and homeostasis
-reproduction and inheritance
-evolution
-interdependance of organisms
-matter,energy, and organization
What are the characteristics of life?
-composed of cells
-highly organized
-use energy
-homeostasis
-growth
-ability to reproduce
What are the steps of the scientific method?
-observation
-hypothesis
-experiment
-conclusion
What is a control group and what happens to it in a controlled experiment?
-no variables added
What is an experimental group and what happens to it in a controlled experiment?
independent variable added
the study od the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment
ecology
living components of the environment
biotic factor
nonliving factors in the environment
abiotic factors
a species' way of life, or the role the species plays in its environment
niche
the range of conditions that a species can potentially tolerate and the range of resources it can potentially use
fundamental niche
the range of resources a species actually uses
realized niche
a graph of performance versus values of an environmental variable (temperature)
tolerance curve
a species interaction that resembles predation in that one individual is harmed while the other individual benefits
parasitism
one individual captures, kills, and consumes another individual
predation
How do plants defend themselves against herbivores?
sharp thorns, spines, sticky hairs, and tough leaves, secondary compunds
How do animals avoid predation?
-flee, hiding, resmebling an inedible object
-bright colors to warn poisonous
-mimicry
a cooperative relationship in which both species derive some benefit
mutualism
an interaction in which one species benefits and the other is not affected
commensalism
What is the importance of a population's age structure?
more individuals that survive and reproduce, population will grow, more little ones to have bigger population and grow
How are age structures close ot human population growth?
much bigger young population to old population, better chance to reproduce and survive longer
Why are smaller populations more vulnerable to extinction?
they have less reproduction rate and so they are likelier to be prey
population builds on the exponential model but accounts for influence of limiting factors
logisitc model
decribes a population that increases rapidly afer only a few generations
exponential model
What are the human caused environmental problems?
overpopulation, mass extinction, ozone depletion, gobal warming
Explain the human caused problems.
overpopulation
-too much reproduction, taking up too much space

mass extinction
-too much population, kill trees and animals for space

ozone depletion
-CFCs

global warming
too much greenhouse effect, extra gases and heat, keeping too much in
What are the levels of organization in ecology?
biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population
the mechanism that insulates Earth from the deep freeze of space
greenhouse effect
most inclusice level of organization, the thin volume of Earth and its atmosphere that supports life
biosphere
includes all of the organisms and the nonliving environment found in a particular place
ecosystem
all the interacting organisms living in an area
commmunity
includes all the members of a species that live in one place at one time
population
when organisms can adjust their tolerance to abiotic factors
acclimation
organisms that do not regulate their internal conditions, they change with their external conditions
conformers
organisms that use energy to control some of their internal conditions
regulators
enter a state of long teerm reduced activity
dormancy
the energy and materials the species needs
resources
species with broad niches, tolerate a high range of conditions and use variety of resources
generalists
species that have narrow niches
specialists
measures how crowed a population is
population density
the spatial distribution of individuals within the population
dispersion
then umber of burths occuring in a period of time
birth rate
the number of deaths in a period of time
death or mortality rate
how long on averyage an individual is expected to live
life expectancy
the distribution of individuals among different ages in a population
age structure
show likelihood of survival at different ages through the lifetime of the organism
survivorship curves
a population as the amount by which a population's size changes in a given time
growth rate
movement of individuals into a population
immigration
the movement of individuals out of the population
emigration
How do you find growth rate?
birth date - death rate = growth rate
the larger a population gets the faster it grows
exponential growth
a factor that restrains the growth of a population
liniting factor
when growth rate is higher than death rate and then they both even out
logistic growth
natural causes the reduction of a population by the same proportion regardless of the size
density independent factors
resource limitations and are triggered by increasing population density
density dependent
mating with relatives
inbreeding
captures, kills, and consumes another individual
predator
the individual consumed by predator
prey
a harmless species resembles a poisonous or distasteful species
mimicry
synthesize chemicals from products of their metabolism
secondary compounds
feeds on another individual
parasite
organism being fed on
host
external parasites
ectoparasites
internal parasites
endoparasites
results from fundamental niche overlap
competition
one species is eliminated from a community because of competition for the same limited resources
competitive exclusion
competitors evolve niche differences or anatomical differences that lessen the intensity of competition
character displacement
when similar species coexist, each species uses only part of the available resources
resource partitioning
animals that carry pollen
pollinators
the number of species a community contains
species richness
the rate or number of species in the community to the relative abundance of each species
species diversity
larger areas usually contain more species than smaller areas
species-area effect
indicates community's resistance to change
stability
the gradual, sequential regrowth of species in an area
succession
the development of a community in an area that has not supported life previously
primary succession
the sequential replacement of species that follows disruption of an existing community
secondary succession
the species that predominate early in succession
pioneer species
when the community reaches a stable end point
climax community
autotrophs that capture energy and use it to make organic molecules
producers
produce carbs by using energy from inorganic molecules
chemosynthesis
the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture energy
gross primary productivity
organic material in an ecosystem
biomass
the rate at which biomass accumulates
net primary productivity
heterotrophs
consumer
eat producers
herbivores
eat both producers and consumers
omnivores
eat other consumers
carnivores
consumers that feed on the garbage of an ecosystem
detritivores
cause decay by breaking down complex molecules in dead tissues and wastes into simpler molecules
decomposers
organisms position in the sequence of energy transfers
trophic levels
a single pathway of feeding relationships among relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that results in energy transfer
food chain
What is the importance of decomposers?
put nutrients back in ground and start all processes all over again
What is the difference between a food web and a food chain?
energy transfers to what organism gets eaten by the others
moving from the abiotic portion of the environment, such as the atmosphere, into living things, and back again
biogeochemical cycle
water in the soil or underground formations of porous rock
ground water
movement of water between these various reservoirs
water cycle
water that evaporates from plants
transpiration
Why are energy transfer diagrams pyramidal in shape,why are there only 4-5 levels?
lose 10% of energy to each level
How are terrestrial and aquatic food chains similar and different?
one on water and land, differnt animal
the complex pathway that nitrogen follows within an ecosystem
nitrogen cycle
process of converting nitrogen gas to nitrate
nitrogen fixation
convert nitrogen gas into ammonia, then nitrite, nitrate, which plants can use
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
decomposers break down the corpses and wastes of organisms and release the nitrogen they contain as ammonia
ammonification
bacteria in the soil take up ammonia and oxidize it into nitrites and nitrates
nitrification
nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere
denitrification
a c old and largely treeless biome that forms a continuous belt across northern North America, Europe, and Asia
tundra
a permanently frozen layer of soil under the surface
permafrost
very large terrestrial ecosystems that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems within them
biomes
a forested biome dominated by cone-bearing evergreen trees
taiga
characterized by trees that lose all of their leaves in teh fall
temperate deciduous forests
dominated by grasses
temperate grasslands
areas that receive an average of less than 25 cm of rainfall per year
desert
tropical or subtropical grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs
savannas
tall trees, canopy, epiphytes
tropical rain forest
treetops form a continuous layer that shades the forest floor
canopy
epiphytes
small plant in tropical rain forest
the part of the ocean that receives light
photic zone
the cold and dark depths where sunlight cannot penetrate
aphotic zone
rhythmic rise and fall of the water level in an area
intertidal zone
over the continental shelf
neritic zone
deep water of the open sea
oceanic zone
open ocean
pelagic zone
ocean bottom
benthic zone
communities of small organisms that drift with the ocean currents
plankton
freshwater rivers and streams flow into the sea
estuary
lakes rich in organic matter and vegetation, making waters murky
eutrophic
contain little organic matter
oligotrophic
communities of small organisms that drift with the ocean currents
plankton
freshwater rivers and streams flow into the sea
estuary
lakes rich in organic matter and vegetation, making waters murky
eutrophic
contain little organic matter
oligotrophic
What is the carbon cycle formula for cellular respiration?
6CO +C H O =6H O+6CO +energy
2 6 12 6 2 2 ATP
What is the formula for PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
6CO +6H O+ENERGY=C H O +6O
2 2 6 12 6 2
What is the formula for the nitrogen cycle?
N=ammonia=nitrites=nitrates=N 2 NH NO NO 2
3 2 3
anything that occupies space and has mass
matter
the quantity if matter and object has
mass
oure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
elements
the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
atom
central core
nucleus
positive electrical charge
proton
no electrical charge
neutron
the number of protons in an atom
atomic number
negatively charged particles
electrons
when electrons move around the nucleus
energy levels
a pure substance that is made up of atoms of two or more elements
compound
combining in ways that cause their atoms to become stable
chemical reactions
attachments
bond
forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
covalent bonds
the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of the substance and that can exist in a free state
moolecule
an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
ion
a bond formed by electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions
ionic bond
the ability to do work
energy
the energy in a system that is available for work
free energy
three different states of matter
sloid, liquid, gas
shown on the left side of the equation
reactants
shown on the right side of the equation
products
chemical reactions that involve a net release of free energy
exergonic reactions
reactions that involve a net absorption of free energy
endergonic reaction
the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
activation energy
reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction
catalyst
important class of catalysts in living things
enzymes
electrons are transferred between atoms
redox reactions
a reactant loses one or more electrons
oxidation reaction
a reactant gains one or more electrons
reduction reaction
mixture in which one or more substance are uniformally distributed in another substance
solution
the substance dissolved in the solution
solute
the substance in which the solute is dissolved
solvent
the measurement of the amoung of solute dissolved in a fixed amount if the solution
concentration
no more solute can be dissolved
saturated solution
solutions in which water is the solvent
aqueous solutions
breaking apart of the water molecule into two ions of opposite charge
dissociation
What is the formula for dissociation of water?
H O<->H+ + OH-
2
What is the OH- molecule known as?
hydroxide ion
What is the formula for hydroxide and hydronium ions?
H+ + H O<->H O+
2 3
What is the H+ molecule known as?
hydromium ion
Is 1 more acidic or basic?
acidic
ranges from 0-14 and 7 is neutral, base and acid on either side
pH scale
chemical substances that neutralize small amouns of either and acid or a base added to a solution
buffer
What is the structure of a water molecule?
O
H H
uneven pattern of electrical charge
polar
the type of attraction that holds two water molecules together
hydrogen bond
an attractive force between the same kind
cohesion
the attractive force between unlike substances
adhesion
adhesion and cohesion together enable water molecules to move upward through narrow tubes against the force of gravity
capillarity
contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other carbon atoms and to other elements as well
organic compounds
What are the 4 main organic compounds in carbs?
hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen
clusters of atoms that influence the properties of the molecules they compose
functional groups
an organic compund with a
(-OH)hydroxyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms
alcohol
simple molecules
monomers
repeated, linked units
polymer
large polymers
macromolecules
electrons are transferred between atoms
redox reactions
a reactant loses one or more electrons
oxidation reaction
a reactant gains one or more electrons
reduction reaction
mixture in which one or more substance are uniformally distributed in another substance
solution
the substance dissolved in the solution
solute
the substance in which the solute is dissolved
solvent
the measurement of the amoung of solute dissolved in a fixed amount if the solution
concentration
no more solute can be dissolved
saturated solution
solutions in which water is the solvent
aqueous solutions
breaking apart of the water molecule into two ions of opposite charge
dissociation
What is the formula for dissociation of water?
H O<->H+ + OH-
2
What is the OH- molecule known as?
hydroxide ion
What is the formula for hydroxide and hydronium ions?
H+ + H O<->H O+
2 3
What is the H+ molecule known as?
hydromium ion
Is 1 more acidic or basic?
acidic