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28 Cards in this Set

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Amino Acid
Building block of a protein molecule containing four different atoms: C,H,O,N. 2 other amino acids contain sulfer. In a protein molecule 20 amino acids are found. Glycine and alanine form glycylalanine.
Lipid
Efficient energy storage compounds composed of carbon,Hydrogen,and oxygen atoms.Fats.Triglycerol and simple fats are most common in human diet and bodies.
Glycerol
A three carbon sugar cells form glycerol from glucose, contains C,H, and O
Monosaccharides
Single sugar molecules. 2 monosaccharides can bond to form a disaccharide. Glucose and fructose are examplys of monosaccharides.
polysaccharides
A carbohydrate that has three or more monosaccharides joined chemically.
Protons
positively charged particles
electron
negetively charged particles
Neutron
uncharged particles
organic compounds
biological molecules built of carbon combined with other elements.Can be broken down to elements from which they were formed.
Ion
charged particle that has either a negetive or positive charge.
Enzymes
specialized and highly specific catalysts present in organisms are proteins called enzymes.
catalysts
substances that promote chemical reactions
ionization
compounds not made of ionsca nundergo a reaction called ionization
decompostion
process of talking molecules apart;heat and chemicals are chief agents
PH Scale
scale from 0 to 14 reflecting concentration of H ions; lower than 7 means acidic, higher than 7 means basic and 7 means neutral
Synthesis
Reactions that make compounds
Nuceic acid
hereditary or genetic, material for all organisms
Proteins
function as enzymes and from part of cell structure.
Carbohydrate
organic compound made of C,H,O with H and O atoms in a 2:1 ratio. Sugar, starchm glycogen,and cellulose are examples of carbohydrates.
cellulose
gives cell walls surrounding plant cells their rigidity.
Cholesterol
structural component of cells and is used by the body to make hormones and other important compounds
Triglyceride
simple fats consists of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol molecule.
Dipeptides
two amino acids linked together to form dipeptide
polypeptide
long chain of amino acids
active site
specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to substrate through weak chemical bonds.
enzyme-substrate complex
an enzyme molecule together with the molecule on which it acts,correctly arranged at the active site of an enzyme
Substrate
molecules on which an enzyme acts.
Osmosis
net movement of H2O molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high h2o concentration until an equillibrium is reached.