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65 Cards in this Set

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Process of making glucose (some tissues can make it from non-carbohydrate presursors like amino acids) and where it occurs.
Gluconeogenesis; Liver and kidneys
We also store glucose as ______ in the liver and muscle.
Glycogen
Both glucose and fructose are _________.
Monosaccharides
_____ or table sugar is made of 1 molecule of fructose plus 1 molecule of glucose and is a dissaccharide.
Sucrose
Lactose or milk sugar is make of galactose and glucose, thus it is a ___________.
Dissaccharide
_______ ________ is due to a decrease of the enzyme lactase in the gut brush border.
Lactose intolerance
A funtion of carbohydrates: serves as a great ____ _____.
Fuel reserve
In times of caloric excess we store glucose as _____ but our capacity to do this is limited.
Glycogen
We have about ______days of glucose stored away as glycogen.
1-2
Glucose is converted into ______ _______ then into ___________ where it may be transported to adipose tissue for storage.
Fatty acids; triglycerides
The term for glucose inclusion in proteins:
Glycoprotein
When glucose sticks onto proteins and glycates or glycosylates them, changing their function.
Glucose toxicity
There are __ naturally occurring polymers of amino acids.
20
Most amino acids end in which suffix?
-ine
Amino acids are classified as _______ which means that the body can't synthesize them and they must be taken in by dietary means.
Essential
Amino acids are also classified as _________ or _______, this means taht their metabolism may contribute to the generation of either glucose or ketones.
gluconeogenic; ketogenic
What holds amino acids together?
peptide linkages
What is the process in which proteins are broken down into their constituent amino acids?
proteolysis
What is used clinically because it restrains proteolysis?
glucose
The problem of protein wasting (in catabolic states such as fever, infections, burns, AIDS, cancer) is termed _______.
cachexia
TRUE/FALSE:
There is storage for proteins in the same way there is for glucose and fatty acids.
FALSE. But, it should be emphasized that the proteolysis occurring during fasting is specific in that those proteins being used are spared, at least in the short run.
What happens to muscles and the proteins that make up that muscle if it is not used?
atrophy (ie: an arm or leg in a cast for a long time)...therefore a muscle that is not used wastes much more rapidly.
If amino acids are being stored in the form of proteins, a ______ nitrogen balance is occuring; if they are being catabolized, a _____ nitrogen balance is occuring.
positive; negative
Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions are called....?
enzymes
______lower the energy of activation and allows a reaction to proceed faster and at rates compatible with survival.
Enzymes
When cells are damaged, the enzymes leak out and can be measured in ______.
plasma
What enzyme levels increase under conditions such as prostate cancer or liver damage?
acid or alkaline phosphatases
What defect or absence of this gene results in the failure of immune cells to mature? (It also was the subject of the first gene tx trials and showed some success.)
adenosine deaminase or "boy in the bubble"
What enzymes are inducible by many drugs, alcohol, barbiturates, and herbal supplements?
microsomal enzymes
Name an important microsomal enzyme.
Cytochrome p450
What enzyme makes DNA from RNA and is used primarily by the AIDS virus?
reverse transcriptase
_____ enzymes help to assemble viruses and ______ inhibitors are used to prevent viral duplication.
protease
This hormone, along with insulin and glucagon, is protein or polypeptide in nature and reminds us why we should only by organic milk!
GH (growth hormone is now made synthetically and is used to increase milk production in cows and linear growth in humans)
GH is also called _________.
somatotropin
Hormone _________ are protein or glycoprotein in nature and possess what are referred to as memebrane spanning regions.
receptors
An important example of hormone receptors is ________.
insulin receptor (IR)
_______ resistance is in part due to a decrease in IR numbers.
Insulin
Give 2 blood group antigens.
ABO and Rh factor
The HLA system is composed of which antigens (Ags)?
Class I and II
Name a common marker that is used clinically.
prostate specific antigen
________ are either embedded in cell membranes or are free floating proteins.
Antibodies (Abs)
The ability of maintain vascular integrity depends upon the proper function of ________.
clotting factors
In some males a defect in their synthesis or stability leasd to ________ (factor VIII is a classic example).
hemophilia
_________ include actin, myosin, tropomyosin and troponin in muscle.
Structural proteins
Water insoluble organic compounds that can be extracted using nonpolar solvents like ether or benzene.
lipids
What is the difference in how you would denote a saturated fatty acid vs. an unsaturated fatty acid?
saturated: C--C (one pair of electrons shared between carbons)
unsaturated: C==C (more than one pair of electrons shared between carbons)
Name 3 common fatty acids:
palmitic (C14), oleic (C16), and stearic (C18) acids
What is the term used to describe an increase fat in stool, often due to gall bladder disease?
steatorrhea
Under normal conditions, about what percentage of the energy expended by the heart or muscles comes from fatty acids?
70%
What is the term from 3 fatty acids coupled to a glycerol backbone?
triacylglycerols or triglycerides (TGs)
___________ is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis.
Hypertriglyceridemia
TGs are a major energy storage form and a key component of circulating _____________.
plasma lipoproteins (ie: VLDL or chylomicrons)
________ are composed of glycerol (to which 2 fatty acids are attached to 2 of the carbons, the third carbon has a _______ group attached to it).
Phospholipids; phosphate
Name 3 common phosphate group compounds.
serine (now called phosphatidylserine), choline (phosphatidylcholine), and inositol (phosphatidyinositol)
The hydrolysis or breakdown of phospholipids is in many cases coupled to receptors for certain hormones or neurotransmitters and ther breakdown generates many ____________ within the cell.
second messengers
Name the two types of nucleic acids, their structure and location.
DNA- double helix w/ base pairs, found primarily in the nucleus.
RNA- single strand, found in the nucleolus and cytoplasm.
Where can DNA also be found within a cell?
mitochondria (mitochndrial DNA has been used to trace our evolutionary ancestors)
What are the 3 major types of RNA?
Transfer (tRNA), Messenger (mRNA), and Ribosomal (rRNA)
All nucleic acids are composed of repeating ________ units.
nucleotide
Nucleotides are composed of a _____, _______, and a ______.
base; phosphate; sugar
Name the sugar in DNA and the sugar in RNA.
DNA- deoxyribose; RNA- ribose
Name the bases in DNA and the bases in RNA.
DNA- adenine (thats me!! get it, aDENINE), cytosine, thymine, and guanine; RNA- adenine, cytosine, uracil, and guanine
The drug AZT (axidothymidine, also called zidovudine) inhibits ___________.
reverse transcriptase
Acyclovir or zovirax nucleoside is an analogue for _______.
herpes
Mercaptopureine and cytosine arabinoside are used to treat ______.
cancer