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40 Cards in this Set

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was introduced in 1938 by Cerletti and Bini. It nas been most effective with severely psychotic
patients.However, recent drug therapy has minimized its administration.
Electroconvulsive Therapy: (ECT)
In the 1930's Moniz proposed the treatment by destroying certain connections in the brain.
Psychosurgery;
It was
then called ___ which involves cutting the nerve fibers between the frontal lobes and
hypothalamus, causing a relaxed state in the patient. After the surgery, patients become calm,
manageable, less anxious, but lost intellectual and cognitive functionings.
prefrontal lobotomy
____cannot treat hallucinations or delusions of psuychotic patients. In 1950's,
_______was developed in France which reduced psychotic symptoms, especially
in schizophrenia. Thorazine belonged to a group called phenothiazines which were most effective in
helping anti-psychotic patients.
Over the years, new and more effective anti-psychotic medications have been marketed with fewe
side effects. Haldol is a good example
Anti-psychotic Drugs (Major Tranquilizers).
Chloropromozine (thorazine)
Before 1950's, Barbituates were used to relieve anxiety. They were replaced by anti-anxiety drugs.
Meprobamates were the first starters followed by benzodiazepines (librium, and valium).
Anti-anxiety drugs are addictive and influence psychomotor skills.
) Anti-anxiety Drugs (minor Tranquilizers)
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and tricyclics have been effective.
MAO prevents the breakdown of nor-epinephrine and serotonin in the synapses.
trycyclics (such as imipramine) have fewer side effects.
Prozac is a major anti-depressant drug which has been miraculous.
Anti-depressant Drugs
Lithium (in the form of lithium carbonate) is effectve in treating bipolar disorders and produces
opposite effects as anti-depressants.
It limits the availability of serotonin and nor-epinephrine in the synapses.
Anti-manic Drugs
The study of the effects of the drugs on behavior and the brain is called ______
The use of drugs has greatly changed therapy. Long hospitalizations is no longer needed.
However drugs do not cute mental disorders. Their continued and timely use control the symptoms
of the illness.
Psychopharmocology
___is defined as the systematic application of the techniques and psychological
principles by a trained person for the helping of troubled people. ___ is more an art
than a science. The following aims can be achieved.
Psychotherapy
(a) __ is a chance to unlearn, relearn, develop or change certain behaviors.
(b) __ helps generate new emotionally important experiences
(c) There is a therapeutic relationship between the client (patient) and the therapist.
psychotherapy
There are many variations of psychotherapeutic techniques. However, all of them can be divided
into two major categories which are:
1) The insight-oriented approaches and
2) the action-oriented Approaches
was the founder of psychoanalysis.
According to this theory, instinctual drives seek gratification.
Repressing unacceptable thougts and impulses cause complexes and symptoms. The aim of
psuychanalyis is to make conscius what is unconscious by uncovering repressed materials.
Psychoanalysts use four methods to achieve their therapeutic goals:
Sigmund Freud
Dreams are conscidered "the royal roads to the unconscious".
Each dream has two parts, the manifest and the latent. The latent contents of the dreams are
subject of investigations.
Free association and Dream Analysis
The therapist analyses the reasons for the patient's resistance during the therapy sessions.
Analysis of Resistance
The patient views the therapist as the target of love or hate, re-enacting earlier life conflicts.
___ may be positive or negative.
___ refers to the therapist's feelings towards the patient.
Transference and Counter-transference
Explanations of free associations, contents of dreams and other statements made by the patient,
which result in gaining insight by the patient.
Interpretation
Modern psychoanalysts stress the ego autonomy. Among such persons are :
Anna Freud, Eric
Erikson, and Hartmann.
The emphasis is on self-actualization, self-concept, free will, responsibility and the qualities of
humanities.
Humanistic & Existential Therapies
Carl Rogers is the founder of this technique. He believed that in certain therapeutic conditions
individuals could move towards self-acualization. to create such a condition, the therapist must
accept the client as a perons; show empathy and unconditional positive regards.
Person-centered Therapy
A person's experience and involvement in the world as a being is the focus of attention
People loose sense of meaning of life. This is called ______
Responsibilty, choice
and freedom are stressed.
existential crisis
Existential Analysis
Fritz Perls is the founder of the technique. It emphasises a person's totality of experience whch
should not be fragmented. The stress is on the here and now and on non-verbal communication
Gestalt Therapy
Wolpe uses ___ ___ to treat anxiety with training in relaxation techniques.
The client is asked ot imagine himself herself in anxiety-prducing situations.
Flooding and implosion are also used. __ places a person in a real-life anxiety producing
situation. ___ relies on the client's ability to imagine anxiety-arousing scenes. In ___ , undesirable behavior is paired with unpleasant stimulus.
systematic desensitization
flooding
implosion
adversive conditioning

Action-Oriented Approaches to individual Psychotherapy

1. Classical COnditioning Techniques
Tokens are exchanged for priviledges. this moethod is used in a variety of
settings with a eriety of cases.Punishment is sometimes taking away something reinforcing.
Lovaa's work with autistic chidlren follows the above method.
operant conditioning techniques
Token Economy
Acquisition of new behavior by watching others is possible. This process is called modeling,
which works best with phobic persons.
Delinquent boys are asked to observe a model and then imitate the behavior of the model
Observational Learning Techniques
___ is used to change a client's irrational self-defeating and disorted thoughts
and attitudes with positive and appropriate ones.Cognitie restructuring is used to help clients deal with their irrational thoughts nad beliefs.
Behavioral regearsals are given also.
___ training is used to teach people to handle the stresses of their life.
cognitive restructuring
stres inoculation
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
An integration of bio-medical sciences with behavioral sciences is refered to as:
The goal is to help peope change their life styles to prevent illness or enhance the quality of their
lives
behavioral
medicine
this method combines
physiological and behavioral approaches. A patient receives information or biofeedback and is
rewarded for returning them to normal levels.
Patients through counseling and practice drills learn to cfontrol and change their Type A behavior.
Biofeedback Therapy
-practice tends to increase coping skils
Resisting Stress: Guiding Principles
a. practice
Specific actions are taken to reduce or eliminate danger.
Resisting Stress: Guiding Principles
Preparation Against Harm
High anxiety results when a situation is ambiguous. Unknown is more
frightening than a known threat.
Reduction of Ambiguity-
People depend on each other for social support, reassurance
and confirmation.
Support groups are extremely helpful in reducing stress.
Social Reassurance & support
Using the _____, it was found that treated patients showed more improvements
than untreated ones.
meta-analysis technique
involves more than one client or therapist. Groups save time and money.
Interpersonal problems are best dealt within groups.
Group Therapy
A form of group therapy that modifies relationships within a family to achieve harmony. Focus is
on the family as a whole and as a unit. The family is a social system that needs to be treated
as a whole.
Two types of approaches are usually in family therapy:
Family Therapy
The family system itself contributes to pathological behavior in the family, for example, the family
system requires a sick person in the family. The family system therapy is directed at the
improvements in the organization of the family
The System Approach
Since family problems result from communication difficulties the aim of this technique is to
improve more effective and positive communications among the family members
The Communication Approach
An increasingly popular treatment technique for couples. Married couples are seen together.
The aim is to clarify and improve the communications, interactions and role relationships between
the couple. Another similar form is called the couple therapy.
Marital Therapy
Most practicing clinicians consider themselves as being eclectic. The more experienced therapists
show more diversity and resourcefulness in sessions.
Systematic Integration and Eclecticism
refers to the process of selecting concepts, methods and strategies
from a variety of current theories which are effective.
Therapeutic eclecticism
an approach to mental health which takes into account the influences of environmental factors using community resources and agencies to eliminate conditions that
cause psychological problems. Pertinent issues include managed health care and the prevention
of psychopathology.
Community Psychology