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54 Cards in this Set

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isotype switching
immunoglobulins are produced by B-cells that can undergo isotype switching that leads to DNA rearrangement of heavy chains that produces several different types of RNA
T-cells
-develop in thymus

-activate B-cells to isotype switch to produce several immunoglobulins
PTH
-increases amount of calcium

-cause bone resorption

-causes calcium reabsortion in kidneys

-excretion of K
first trimester of pregnancy
-period in which organs appear

-organ systems don't fully develop until birth

-rapid brain growth occurs during the third trimester
genetic linkage
-assumed when two characteristics are always found together

-genes governing these characteristics are probably located very close to one another on the same chromosome
theory of acid-base chemistry
-weak acid turns into strong base

-strong base turns into weak acid
electrophilic aromatic substitution
-aromatic rings undergo this rxn

-aromatic rings are relatively stable and undergo this rxn when o and p activators are present (they donate electron density)

-goal is turn substance that one wants to add to ring into an eletrophile by abstracting electron density
seperating alcohols from phenols
-phenols are acidic so they're soluble in sodium hydroxide

-small alcohols (5 C's or less) are soluble in any aq. sol.
reduction of epoxide
-by LAH

-O protonated by water
tidal volume
-amount air moved into lungs during inspiration

-not all goes to alveoli

-dead space is air in passageways (not used for gas exchange)
imide
-two carbonyl groups linked to a primary amine or ammonia
anhydride formation
-two carboxylates get acidified

-one attacks the other

-water as leaving group to form anhydride
primary amines
-linked to only one R group
virus sizes
-smaller than all known eukaryotes and also smaller that bacteria
bacteria gene exchange can occur in what three ways?
-conjugation: involves sex pilus encoded by genes on F plasmid

-transformation: acquire DNA from surroundings

-transduction: gene transfer by viruses
does arterial or venous blood have a lower pH?
-venous because of CO2
urea formation
-from excess aa

-ammonia combines with carbon dioxide

-when amino group removed, aa turned into glucose, glycogen, and fats
pancreatic secretions
-into duodenum from pancreatic ducts

-pancreatic amylase, lipase, proteases, and bicarbonate
parathyroid hormone
-stimulates osteoclasts

-increases blood calcium levels
glucagon is from?
-alpha cells of islet of Lagerhans of pancreass
calcitonin
-secreted by thyroid

-decreases blood calcium levels

-stimulates osteoblasts

-"need calcium to build bones"
Hardy-Weinberg
1.) large population

2.)random mating (also no inbreeding)

3.)no migration in or out

4.)no net mutations
medulla
-involved in regulation of breathing and heart rate
hypothalamus
-temperature regulation, sleep/wake cycles, hunger, water and salt balance, production of vasopressin and oxytocin, and produces releasing hormones that control secretion of anterior pituitary
pons
-contains tracts that connect cerebrum with other parts of the brain

-in conjection with medulla and controls breathing rate
cerebrum
-memory, conscious thought, voluntary motor activity, and interpretation of sensation
ovulation
-hypothalamus releases GnRH and FSH is released by anterior pituitary, which stiumlates ovaries to produce mature follicle and produce and release estrogen

-FSH decreases and LH increases and causes ovulation to occur (FSH decreases as estrogen levels increases)

-LH acts on remaining follicle- now called corpus luteum that secretes progesterone
epinephrine is released by?
adrenal medulla
action potential spike due to?
-depolarization of axon

-permeability of Na+ increases

-K+ eventually rushes out

-cell back to normal w/ Na+/K+ pump
Heart conduction
-SA, AV, Bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers

-SA not functionally dependent on nervous innervation, but can be influenced by accelerator nerve (sympathetic) and vagus nerve (parasymphathetic)
reflex arc
-sensory nerve, interneuron, motor neuron

-interneuron in spinal cord and brain input not required in simple reflex
nucleosides
-no phosphates
what enters the lacteals in the villi of s.i.?
-fa and glycerol, where they are reconverted into fats
how are monosccharides absorbed?
-active transport and facilitated diffusion via into epithelial cells lining villi
how are proteins absorbed?
-broken down into aa and actively transported
what are microbodies?
membrane bound organelles that are specialized containers for metabolic rxns
what changes occur right after a baby is born?
-lungs expand with air and resistance in pulmonary blood vessels decreases

-umbilical blood flow stops and blood pressure in inferior vena cava and right atrium decreases

-left arterial P increases

-P dec. in R and inc. in L causes foramen ovale to close

-ductus venosus degenerates usually by 3 months

-ductus arteriosus closes allowing blood to flow through lungs

-produces adult hemoglobin
Hardy-Weinberg
- p + q = 1

-p = dominant

-p squared is frequency of "TT"

-q squared is frequency of "tt"

-frequency of heterozygote is 2pq
endoderm develops into?
-linings of digestive and respiratory tracts, parts of liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder lining
Thyroid hormones
-thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3 are derived from iodination of the aa tyrosine
cretinism
-hypothyroidism in newborns

-mental retardation and short stature
ectoderm develops into?
NS, epidermis, lens of eye, and inner ear
what does the large intestine absorb?
water, salts, and minerals
medulla oblongata controls?
breathing, heart rate, and gastrointestinal activity
cerebral cortex
-memory, creative thought, and processes and integrates sensory input and motor responses
hypothalamus
temperature control, water balance, hunger, thirst, sex drive, and endocrine system
cerebellum
-coordinates muscles, hand-eye coordination, and timing of rapid movements
surge in LH midway through menstrual causes?
-mature follicle to burst and release of ovum
parathyroid glands
-four small pea-shaped structures embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid

-PTH increases blood calcium levels and actives vitamin D (increases intestinal calcium absorption)
where is aldosterone produced?
adrenal cortex
what does LAH do to esters?
reduces them to alcohols
what happens when you react a carboxylic acid w/ a strong base?
you get an enolate ion
what does decolorization of bromine test for?
presence of unsaturate fa or db
is cortisone regulated by anterior pituitary?
yes, via ACTH