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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual: The Medical Model
The Medical Model
Psychologidcal disorders seen as diseases
Disorder is classified as present or absent
Clinical cutpoints are often identical for all individuals, and symptom lists are similar, with limited regard for age and no regard for gender
Usually no indication of how or why the disorder develops
Disorder is located within the individual, with little regard for familial or sociocultural context
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
A developmental failure in the brain circuitry that underlines behavioral inhibition and sustained attention (concentration).
Impaired self control leads to poor ability to delay gratification
Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
Inattentive Type
Combined type

All need 6+ of symptoms
Some symptoms causing impairment before age of 7
Some impairment in 2 or more settings
Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
6+ symptoms
Often fidgets
Often leaves seat
Often runs or climbs excessively when inappropriate
Often has difficulty playing quietly
Often on the go
Often talks excessively
Often blurts out answers
Often has dificulty awaiting turn
Often interrupts or intrudes on others
Inattentive type
6+ sypmtoms
Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
Often has difficulty sustaining attention
Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
Does not follow directions and fails to finish tasks
Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustaining mental effort
Often loses things
Is easily distracted
Is forgetful in daily activities
Gender Differences
Boys 3x more likely than girls
-genetically more prone to nervous system disorders
-Societal explanation (differences in norms for inattentive and hy[eractive behavior)

Girls who do not meet full criteria may still experience negative consequences
Alerting Network
Children with ADHD have poor vigilance in a boring computerized task requiring sustaining responding for 15 min
Orienting Network
Children with ADHD are less able to prepare themselves to press one of several keys when they see a warning light signaling tha tthe target stimulus is about to appear (not helped by spatial cueing)
Executive Control
Children with ADHD are not good at blocking out irrelevant stimuli (either on laboratory tasks or at home), very distractible
Impaired Executive Functions
Nonverbal working memory
Forgetfulness, inability to hold events in mind or remember directions, trouble planning
Impaired Executive Functions
Self Directed Speech
is not internalized
trouble with rule based reasoning and internal self questioning (poor at modifying behavior in response to feedback)
Impaired Executive Functions
Self-Regulation Problems
Difficulty with emotion regulation, inhibiting motor and verbal responses, and maintaining motivation when gratification is delayed
Impaired Executive Functions
difficulty with analytic thinking, problem solving, organization
What does not cause ADHD
Bad parenting
Dietary Factors
Difficulty with processing sensory inputs (visual, auditory, tactile)