Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

172 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mapped brain fuction by electrically stimulating brain areas in patients with epilepsy
general term for any inability to comprehend or produce language
Broca's Aphasia
inability to speak fluently despite normal comprehension and intact vocal mechanisms
Wernicke's Aphasia
inability to understand or produce meaningful language although production of works is still intact
Paul Broca
notion that lefot and right hemispheres have different functions

proximity of Brocas Area to the mouth area of the motor cortex - region to production of speech
Broca's Area
By mouth area of primary motor cortex, explains relation to speech production
Damage results in broken speech and difficulty speaking
Karl Wernicke
described patients that had trouble comprehending language after injury to the posterior brain region
Wernicke's Area
Comprehension of language

Damage results in speech like bad mad libs, makes no sense but no trouble saying the words
Patient H.W.
unable to recall the names of objects
Pathway of Auditory Information
thought - Wernicke's Area - Broca's Area - Motor cortex
Noam Chomsky
among first to assert that most languages share common core features therefore suggesting that we may posses genetic constraints on language
Innate abilities
Universal Aspects of Language
All societies have language

Language is learned early in life, and effortlessly

All languages have structural elements in common (ie verbs)
Representational Constraints
type of innateness

mental representations are innately specified in the brain, detailed knowledge, independent of experience
Architectural Constraints
type of innateness

the anatomical elements and/or connections necessary for language are innately specified
Chronotopic Constraints
type of innateness
critical/sensitive period
Timing of developmental events is innately constrained
A combination or architectural and chronotopic constraints that can limit the types of information that a system can learn without requiring that knowledge to be innately specified
L1/L2 Hypothesis A
Brain areas recruited for learning and processing L1 are different from those recruited for L2.
Brain lesions in polyglots tend to result in aphasia in only one language
Most studies fail to pinpoint a cosistent neuronal substrate for L2
L1/L2 Hypothesis B
Age of language acquisition affects the cortical representation of the language.
Evidence of a sensitive period for language acquistion that late learning of a language may rely on spearate neural systems.
Languages learned within the same sensitive period would be expected to recruit similar brain systems for production and comprehension
L1/L2 Hypothesis C
Proficiency Level affects the cortical representation of the language
Languages that are learned to the same high level of proficiency as native language may tap the same neural system, whilethose languages that are less proficient may rely on a separable set of neural systems
Related to the more general idea that automatic and effortful cognitive processing may be handled by separate systems in the brain
Bilingual Aphasia
If both languages were learned early, to a high degree of proficiency, then both languages are affected
If L2 was learned after age 7, late damage may affect only one of the languages (l1 or L2)
Bilingual Aphasia
L1 vs L2
L1 - damage to primitive brain, basal ganglia, automatic cognitive function
L2 - damage to regions like hippocampus and frontal cortex result in loss of L2, effortful cognitive function
Bowlby's Attachment Theory
Infant rapidly forms an attachment to the caregiver
Infant seeks caregiver proximity
Caregiver profides a safe haven
Infant will continue to seek contact with the caregiver even if abused
Cupboard Love
Infant wants to be near mother becuase mother provides food
Harlow Rhesus Monkeys
Disproved cupboard love, prefer to go to cuddley mother when threatened
Caretaking hormone
Increases when feeding, and defending young
High prolactin levesl increase caretaking, and caretaking increases prolactin levels
found in mammals
receptors for these hormones throughout the limbic region and brainstem
formation of attachment
Maternal euphoria after birth
Maternal feeling of contentment and well being while breast feeding
Transmitted to baby while breast feeding, mild sedative, both feel happy
Associated with massage and sexual arousal
associated with orgasm in females
levels decrease with sad feelings
Attaching to the first thing a (duckling, kitten, etc) sees
Humans dont imprint, if a critical period exists it is much longer
Male attachment hormone
related to paternal behavior and pair attachment
associated with orgasm in males
Seretonin Transportor Gene
Long allele codes for more rapid removal of seritonin from synapse
Prone to anxiety and irritability
More common in European children than japanese
DRD-4 Gene
Long allele related to preference for novelty and high activity
Related to ADHD
Gonadal Hormones
Androgens and Estrogens
Sexual Dimorphism
Testosterone produced by testes, binds with aromatase in the liver, becomes estradiol (a form of estrogen, but can enter neurons because of testosterone base), enters neurons, masculinizes the brain
Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
Male fetus produces androgens and the body is not responsive to them, problem with the receptors, default is female
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
A female fetus is exposed to androgens and takes a male appearence
Extreme cases: partial development of male external genitalia
Sex Differences in Cognitive Organization
Females better at short term memory and verbal fluency tasks

Males better on spatial realations type tasks and mental rotation type tasks
Neural Basis Sex Differences
Medial Prefrontal Cortex
Larger dendritic fields (presumably more synapses)in male rats than female rats
Neural Basis Sex Differences
Orbitofrontal Cortex
larger dendritic fields (and presumably more synapses)in female rats than male rats
Sex differences in human hypothalamus
In heterosexual males
Preoptic area contains twice as many neurons
Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is 2.5 times larger
NAH3 region is 2 times larger
Suprachiasmic nucleus contains twice as many neurons
Hypothalamus and sex behavior
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Controles female mating posture in rats
Preoptic Area of Medial Hypothalamus
Controls copulatory behavior in males, but not sexual motivation
Amygdala and sex behavior
Controls sexual motivation in males (possibly in females, outside of their estrous cycle).
In females, larger ratio size of orbitocortex to size of amygdala
Odor learning in rat pups
Sensitive period to learn mother's scent (icreased ability to prefer odors, decreased ability to odor aversions)
Attach to odor milk scent and odor shock scent
Attachment behaviors
Prairie Voles vs Mountain voles
PV - monogamous, long-term care taking of young, proximity seeking, distressed by mother separation
MV-polygamous, mom abandon 8-14 days after birth, avoid proximity, no distress
Oxytocin in rats
receptors only present with onset of maternal behavior

soothes infant because is administered in milk

infant associates environmental cues with mother face, smell, feel
Oxytocin in Prairie Voles
Have receptors in limbic system
adding increases maternal behavior, and increases pair bond (reduces need to mate)

supressing reduces maternal behavior and pair bond (but mate normally)
Oxytocin in Mountain Voles
Have no receptors, therefore adding or supressing oxytocin has no effect
Milk Letdown response
Infant-related stimuli - hypothalamus - oxytocin - mammory glands - milk letdown

Anxiety - hypothalamus - oxytocin - mammory glands - milk letdown
male hormones

body detects like on/off switch, if present is on, if absent is off and by default female
stimulates development of male reproductive organs and affects brain development
Testes Determining Factor
coded by y chromosomes
stimulates the development of the testes
Timing of Menses
early menstruation - girls are better at verbal than girls who begin later
late menstruation - better at spatial tasks than girls who begin earlier
Gonadal Hormones and experience
Female rats exposed to enriched environments had increased dendritic branching in the cortex

Male rats exposed to enriched environment had increased dendritic spine densities in the cortex
Sex difference between damage to left frontal and left posterior cortex
Females more likely to be aphasic and apraxic after lesions to left frontal cortex

Males likely to be aphasic and apraxic after lesions to left posterior cortex

**Sex difference in organization within left hemisphere
Sexual Dimorphism throughout life
Sex differences strong from 15-30 months of age
Disappear at 32-55 months
Reappear around puberty
Removal of ovaries (historectomy/menopause) masculinizes Medial Prefrontal Cortex, and Orbitofrontal cortex
Constitutionally based infividual differences in emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity and self regulation
Temperamental characteristics are seen to demonstrate consistency across situations as wellas relative stability over time
Kagan's Approach
Divides groups into inhibited and uninhibited temperaments
Uninhibited Temperament
Bold, usually approach unfamiliar people and situations
Inhibited Temperament
Shy or timid with unfamiliar people or objects
Kagan's Temperaments 2
10-15% fal in each of these highly reactive groups

Twin studies with toddlers show about .5 hertiability of these extreme temperament groups
Inhibition and the Amygdala
Amygdala is activated by unfamiliar events and projects to brain regions related to physiological arousal, motor activity and emotional distress
Amygdala response to novelty
Amygdala is highly reactive to novelty, child is more likely to be inhibited

Amygdala has low reactivity to novelty, child is more likely to be uninhibited
Heart rate and Inhibited Temperament
Behaviorally inhibited children tend to have heart rates that are higher and less variable
Heart Rate and Uninhibited Temperament
Behaviorally uninhibited tend to have lower and more variable heart rates
EEG and Inhibited Temperament
Behaviorally inhibited children tend to have more activity of the right frontal cortex
EEG and Uninhibited Temperament
Behaviorally uninhibited children tend to have more activity in the left frontal cortex
Stability of behaviorally inhibited group
Behavioral inhibition at 4 months of age predicts to shyness, social withdrawel, and lower positive affect at ages 4 and 7 years

*also predicts to symptoms of anxiety and depression in preschool and even adolescence
Stability of behaviorally uninhibited group
Behaviorally uninhibited at 4 months are likely to show hyperactivity and acting out in preschool
Health Paradox of Adolescence
Developmental period of strength and resilience
Period of vulerability
Developmental Period of strength and resilience
Stronger, bigger, faster
Maturational improvements in reaction time, reasoning abilities, immune system, ability to withstand cold, heat, injury, and physical stress
Period of Vulnerability
200% increase in mortality rates and morbidity

Difficulties in control of behavior and emotion

High rates of accidents, suicide, homicide, depression, alcohol and substance abuse, violence, reckless behavior, eating disorder, and risky sexual behaviors
Biological changes in puberty
Dramatic changes in body size and composition (ratio of fat vs muscle)

Sexual maturation - breast and phallic development, secondary characteristics (pubic hair)
Looking like an adult
-social experiences/expectations
The increase in outpout of adrenal hormones that begins to occur prior to other signs of impending adolescence (6-8 years of age)
the pubertal increase in gonadal hormones associated with the process of sexual maturation
onset of menstruation
Hormonal Changes
Adrenarche/peak of sex hormones
Gonadarche, Menarche
GnRH (hypothalamus) - pulses -LH/FSH (pituitary) - Gonadarche - estrogen/testosterone - secondary sexual character


GnRH - LH/FSH - Adrenarche - adrenal androgens - secondary sexual character
GRH(hypothalamuys)-GH (pituitary)- growth spurt
Luteinizing Hormone

Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Puberty and Brain development
neural changes leading directly to the pubertal hormonal cascades
Brain - puberty
Puberty and Brain development
Brain changes that are consequence of pubertal processes
Puberty - brain
Puberty and Brain development
aspects of adolescent brain maturation and cognitive development that are not affected by puberty and continue long after puberty is over
Interval between puberty and adult roles
Traditional societys 2yrs for females, 4yrs for males
about 14 years
Implications bewteen adult and puberty
More time to learn and develop skills, formal educations, explore different relationships, career choices
Implications bewteen adult and puberty
gap between emotional and motivational changes adn the completion of cognitive development
Puberty specific maturational changes
romantic motivation
sexual interest
emotional intensity, mood lability
changes in sleep/arousal regulation
risk for affective disorders in females
increase in risk taking, novelty sensation, and reward seeking
Engine with Unskilled driver
Cognitive development (logic, reasoning, planning, problem solving, understanding consequences and capacities for self regulation of emotions and rives, and inhibitory control) are still developing, dependent on age and experience, and continue long after puberty is over
Brain Changes in adolescence
Active myelination is still occuring, prefrontal cortex last to undergo process
Increased speed of neural processing may facilitate cognitive complexity and ablility to combine information from multiple sources
Brain Changes in Adolescence
Massive loss of synapses in neocortical brain regions during adolescence
-as many as 30,000 synapses may be lost per second over the entire cortex druing the pubertal period in primate brain
-leading to an ulrimate loss of almost half the average number of synapses per cortical neuron
Most are in excitory in nature, leading to lower brain activity
Developmental Hypermetabolism
brain activity (rates of glucose metabolism, oxygen utilization and blood flow)show developmental declines during adolescence - decrease in brain metabolism
Brain Changes in Adolescence
Focal Activation
Increase in focal activation in the brain
-less widespread activation of brain fuction during task performance
Brain Changes in Adolescence
Independant Processing
Marked increase in the degree to which the two cerebral hemispheres can process information independently
Brain Changes in Adolescence
Hemispheric Asymmatry
Increase in amount of hemishpereic asymmetry evident in the EEG
Brain Changes in Adolescence
Dopamine fiber
Prefrontal Cortex - Dopamine concentrations and fiber density increases during adolescence
-may be at least partially compensated later in adolescence by a developmental decline in DA synthesis

Nucleus Accumbens - net DA hypofunctioning in NA. Reward systems decrease in dopamine, adolescents more susceptible to addiction
Social Scaffolding
Earlya ctivation of intense motivations and passions can be channeled into a wide range of goal directed behaviors (hobbies, sports, music, art, etc) and passionate commitments to idealistic causes

Shaped by experience

Importance of appropriate social scaffolding
Risk Taking
Promoted by developmental events occuring in brain during adolescence

Evolved to promote attainment of the necessary skills for independence

May predispose adolescents to initiate use of alcohol and other drugs
Mesolimbic Dopamine Reward system
pathways connect structures in brainstem with the midbrain, limbic system, and frontal cortex
Electrical stimulation of lateral hypothalamus activates one aspect of dopamine system and induces a rewarding sensation
Amount determines how rewarding something is
Increase with sex, eating, etc
Adolescent Brain Changes in Reward sensitivity
Dopamine concentrations and fiber density in PFC increases
Increase in risk taking in adolescence
Adolescents appear to show some signs of attaining less reward from a variety of stimuli relative to individuals at other ages leading them to seek additional reinforcers via persuit of new social interactions and engagement in risk taking or novelty seeking behaviors
Shift in dopamine balance
Shift in DA balance toward PFC predominence, resulting in net DA hypofunctioning in ACC
Hot Cognitions
Process of thinking under new conditions of high-arousal and/or strong emotion

Adolescents often appear to be relatively good at making decisions under conditions of low arousal and cool emotions, but under intense emotional arousal, can have much more difficult time making a responsible choice
Methodological problems
Questionnaires: very similar to adults
-1 adolescent at a time, yet most risk taking is a group phenomenon while peer conformity to antisocial behaviors peaks in early to mid adolescence
Hypothetical dilemmas
Undercontiditons that minimize emotional influences on decision making, yet most risk taking occurs under conditions of emotional arousal
anxiety vs eurphoria
Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway
Located in Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
Projects to many areas including the nucleus accumbens (part of the basal ganglia)
Drug Cravings
drug related cues produce dopamine release in VTA
Dopamine release was associated with drug seeking behavior
Drug action at synapses
Drugs can alter chemical processes at any of seven major stages of synaptic transmission

Most psychoactive drugs exert their effects by influencing chemical reactions of synapses
Substance that enhances the function of a synapse

abusive substances
substances that block the function ofa synapse
Dopamine and Drug abuse
abusive drugs are dopamine agonists
cause the release of dopamine or prolong its availability in the synapse
eventually block vaccuum cleaners and dopamine is no longer effective at normal levels (cocaine)
study of how drugs affect the nervous system and behavior
Psychoactive drugs
substance that acts to alter mood, thought, or behavior and is used to manage neuropsychological illness
Drug Routes into nervous system
Oral administration, Inhalation, injection
Oral administration of drugs
Absorbed through stomach or lining of small intestine
Enters bloos stream (diluted 6 pints)
Extracellular fluid
deiluted by 35 liters
modified/destroyed by cell metabolic process
Each step reduces the effect by 10
Fastest and easiest but most barriers
Blood Brain Barrier
helps prevent most substances including drugs from entering the brain via the bloodstream
Endothelial cells in capillaries located throughout the body are not tightly joined, so it is easy for substances to move into and out of the blookstream
Endothelial cells in the brain are tightly joined and the presence of astrocytes (glial cells) help keep most substances out
Elimination of Drugs
Drugs are broken down in the kidneys, liver, and intestines
Drigs are then excreted in urine, feces, sweat, breast milk, and exhaled air
Some substances that cannot be removed may build up in the body and become more toxic ie mercury
Drug routes
In order to enter
Small uncharged molecules (ie oxygen, carbon dioxide) are fat soluable and can cross freely the BBB
Larger charged molecules (eg glucose, amino acids, fats) must be actively transported across the BBB
Difficulty developing drugs for the brain
Must be small and uncharged or they must be structurally similar to a substance that already has an active transporter that allows it to pass the BBB
Individual differences in drug response
Age - older individuals are more sensitive to drugs. Less effective barriers and less effective of eliminating drugs

Body Size - smaller individuals are more sensitive to drugs. Fewer body fluids to dilute drugs

Sex - females are more sensitive to drugs, smaller than men on average
Metabolic Tolerance
number of enzymes needed to break down alcohol may increase
Cellular Tolerance
Activities of brain cells may adjust to minimize the effect of alcohol
Learned Tolerance
People can learn to cope with effects of alcohol and therefore may not appear to be drunk
Increased responsiveness to successive equal doses of a drug

Opposite of tolerance

More likely to occur with occasional use (sensitization to amphetamine may be because this drug causes more dopamine release)
Adolescent Tolerance
Reduced sensitivity to varous drugs of abuse

promotes greater use per occasion relative to more mature individuals

Greater propensity for developing acute and chronic tolerance to adverse drug effects
Adolescent drug abuse
and dependence
Most adolescent smokers try to quit after a year, but 97% are still smoking and are dependent 2 yrs later
Early alcohol exposure strong predictor of subsequent alcohol abuse
Adolescent Addiction
Adolescent rate of relapse approximate those of alcoholic adults despite the much shorter chronicity of the adolescent alcohol users
Escalation of cocane use appears more rapid among adolescents than adult users, grater addiction potential of cocaine
Withdrawel symptoms
physical and psychological behaviors displayed by an addict when drug use ends

Withdrawel symptoms from alcohol and morphine start within several hours of last dose and intensity over several days before subsiding
Psychomotor Activation
Increased behavioral and cognitive activity
At certain levels of consumption, the drug user feels energetic and in control
Occurs with many drugs (narcotics, stimulants, anti-anxiety etc)
Stages of Addiction
Pleasure Activation
Associative Learning
Incentive Salience
Stages of Addiction
Pleasure Activation
User likes the experience
Stages of Addiction
Associative Learning
Plesure becomes linked to cues associated with the drug experience (eg people, places, objects)
Stages of Addiction
Incentive Salience
The drug cues become highly desired and sought-after incentives in their own right
Incentive Sensitization Theory
WHen a drig is associated with certain cues, thecues themselves elicit desire for the drug: also called the wanting/liking theory
Wanting (craving) and liking (pleasure) may be produced by different parts of the brain
Wanting-mesolimbic dopamine system
Liking-opioid neruons
Disinhibition Theory
Alcohol has a selective depressant effect on the cortex (controls judgement) while sparing subcortical structures (more primitive instincts)
Limitation - Behavior under the influence of alcohol often differs depending upon the context
Alcohol Myopia
People respond to restriced set of immediate and prominent cues and ignore more remote cues and potential consequences.
Immediate and prominent cues will differ according to the context
Individual Differences in Drug Use
Personality traits?
unusual risk taking may be trait common to drug abusers
Drugs and Brain Damage
Drugs that cause brain damage
-MDMA (ecstasy) Seratonin Neurons
-Meth Dopamine Neurons
Blocks cerebral blood flow
Phencyclidine (PCP)
Blocks NMDA receptors
Drugs and Brain Damage
Drugs that don't cause brain dammage
-400 different chemicals and impurities
Biological Rythm
Inherent rythm that controls or initiates various biological processes. Linked to cycle of days and rotation around sun, polar animals more effected, human behavior is governed more by daily than seasonal cycles
Biological Clocks
Neural system that times behavior
Allows animals to anticipate events before they happen (migration)
Part of biological clock
Determination or modification of the period of a biorythm
Free Running Rythms
Rythm of the body's absence of the body's own devising in the absence of all external cues
Without input from external cues, our bodies have their own rythms with periods of 25-27 hours. (dialy hour shift)
Animals extend their sleep periods as the sleep related lighting period expands or contracts
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Main pathway of circadian rythms located just aboce the optic chiasm
Retinohypothalamic Pathway
Neural route from a subset of cone receptors in the retina to the SCN of the hypothalamus; allows light to entrain the rythmic activity of the SCN
Time required to complete a cycle of activity
Circadian Rythm
Daily rythm ie human sleep/wake cycle
Suprachiasmatic Rythms
Metabolic activity of the SCN is higher than the light period of the day-night cycle than it is during the dark period of the cycle
Neurons in the SCN maintain their rythmic electrical activity even when all the pathways into and out of the SCN are cut
more active at night?
Pacemaking Circadian Rythms
Light entrains the SCN pacemaker
SCN pacemaker drives a number of "slave oscillators'" each of which controls the rythmic occurrence of one behavior (eg body temp)
SCN pacemaker may drive the slave oscillators via hormones, proteins, or neurotransmitters
Record of brain-wave activity
Records muscle activity
Records eye movement
Beta Rythm
Fast brain wave activity pattern associated with a waking EEG
Alpha Rythm
Large, extremely regular brain waves associated with drowsiness
Delta Ruthm
Slow brain wave activity pattern associated with deep sleep
REM sleep
Fast brain wave patter displayed by the neocortical EEG record during sleep
Resembles wake state
Non REM Sleep
Slow wave sleep associated with deep sleep
4 stages 1 Shallow - 4 Deep
NOrmal night
REM increases after 5 hours, as night goes on less time spent in deep sleep and more in REM, people awaken better from REM sleep than a deep sleep
Developmental Trends
Infants spend about half time in REM sleep and decreases from there on to adulthood at 1/4, increases in pregnant women
Adolescence Phase Delay
A preference for going to sleep and wakeing up later

Also show decrease in total time spent sleeping
Behaviors associated with Non REM sleep
Decrease in body temp, heart rate, blood flow, increase in growth hormone release
Much less dreaming occurs and less vivid
Tossing, turning, kicking, flailing
Sleeptalking, walking
Night Terrors
Behaviors and REM sleep
Atonia - no tone, condition of complete muscle inactivity produced by the inhibition of motor neurons
Mechanisms that regulate body temp stop working
Vivid dreams occur in REM sleep
Everyone dreams every night
Dreams occur in real time
Activation Synthesis
Dream theory
Dreams are personal but have no meaning
IN response to activation from the brianstem, the cortex generates reandom images from personal memory stores
Evolutionary Hypothesis
Dream Theory
Dreams are biologically important because they lead to enhanced performance in dealing with threatening life events (adaptive function)
Sleep as a
Passive process
Is not a passive process
Sleep as a
Biological adaption
Sleep is an energy conserving strategy
-gather food at optimal tiems and sleep to conserve energy the rest of the time
-Animals sleep when they dont travel best
Predators sleep more than prey
Sleep as a
Biological adaption
Basic rest-activity cycle: recurring cycle of temporal packets
About 90 min in humans in which animals arousal waxes and wanes
Sleep as a
Restorive Process
Chemical events that provide energy to cells are reduced during waking and are replenished during sleep
Fatigue and alertness may simply be aspects of the circadian rythms and have nothing to do with wear and tear on the body or depletion of resources
Sleep Deprivation Studies
No marked physiological effects
Decreased cognitive perfomance
REM sleep deprivation studies, more likely to return to REM sleep and spend longer periods in REM sleep
Sleep as a
Process solidifying and organizing events in memory
Cell activity during sleep is similar to that during searching for food when awake
Reticular Activating System
Large reticulum (misture of cell nuclei and nerve fibers -like a net) that runs through thecenter of the brainstem
Stimulation of the RAS
produces a waking EEG
Damage to RAS
Coma, a prolonged state of unconsiousness resembling sleep
Neural Basis of EEG Changes
Basal Forebrain
Contains neurons that secrete acetylcholine onto neocortical neurons that stimulate a waking EEG when animal is STILL AND ALERT
Neural Basis of EEG Changes
Median Rapne Nucleus (midbrain)
Contains serotonin neurons that project widely throughout the neocortex; when stimulated, neocortical cells produce a waking EEG when the animal is MOVING
Neural Basis of REM Sleep
Peribrachial Area
Cholinergic nucleus in the dorsal brainstem having a role in REM sleep behaviors, projects to the medial pontine reticulum
Neural Basis of REM Sleep
Medial Pontline Reticular formation
Nucleus in the pons participating in REM sleep

Projects to several other brain areas that produce REM-related behaviors