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24 Cards in this Set

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What is the endocrine system?
one of two main regulatory systems (CNS)

uses hormone signals

any organ that secretes a hormone into the blood belongs to the endocrine system
What are the three main categories of hormones?
proteins/peptides
steriods
amines

all are lipophilic or hydrophilic
What happens when there is a neural and endocrine interaction?
they regulate each other such

sex steriods effect behavior or milk ejection from a mother at the sound or thought of her child
What are the lipophilic hormones?
all steriod hormones

made from cholesterol and include mineralcorticoids, glycocorticoids, and sex steriods

also include thyroid hormones made from tyrosine and iodine
What are the hydrophilic hormones?
proteins, and catecholamines = norepinephrine and epinephrine

bind to receptor on the plasma wall
What is the hypothalamus?
master endocrine gland

part of the brain and helps regulate the anterior pituitary gland
bonus: What does the posterior pituitary gland control?
it controls the production of the hormone antiduretic hormone or vasopressin that stimulates water retention by the kidneys. When ADH is missing the kidneys to not retain water and therefore feel the need to produce lots of urine. This ia lso why the consumption of alcohol, because it aids in inhibiting ADH, leads to frequent urination
bonus: What does oxytoxin do?
it is a hormone found in the posterior pituitary gland that stimulates the smooth muscles in the uterin and mammary glands that stimulate the production of milk ejection and uterin contractions before and after childbirth
What is the pituitary gland?
hormone regulating gland

divided into the posterior and anterior ends

the posterior pituitary gland appears glandular and gets blood from portal vessels

the anterior pituitary gland contains nerve endings from hypothalmic neurons
When is ADH released?
animal is dehydrated = high plasma osmolarity
What are the anterior pituitary hormones?
trophic hormones that stimulate other endocrine hormones
What control does the hypothalamus have over the anterior pituitary gland?
secretes releasing and inhibiting hormones into portal blood system

regulate the anterior pituitary hormones
What does the thyroid gland do?
it regulates the thyropid hormones = set metabolic rate

aids in the growth and development of the nervous system

metamorphis from larvae to adult

hormones contain iodine
Why would someone with low iodine levels of TSH thyroxine secretion hormone have a low goiter?
because TSH stimulates growth and development

no iodine = not enough for negative feedback to alert the thryoid gland to quit secreting growth hormones
What is the parathyroid and what does it do?
contains one of the two hormones necessary for life = PTH

increase Ca++ release from bone into the blood

acts on kidneys to decrease the amount of Ca++ secreted in the urine
Where are the adrenal glands located?
located above each kidney

composed of the inner portion or medulla and outer portion or cortex
What is the function of the adrenal cortex and medulla?
adrenal medulla = secretes epinephrine in respone to flight or fight of sympathetic nervous system

adrenal cortexis = stimulates to secrete glucocorticoids by anterior pituitary hormone or ACTH and this is stimulated to regulate glucose and aldosterone that regulates blood Na+ and K+ levels
Whaty happens when your body is under a great deal of stress?
there is a release of cortisol with an availability of blood glucose as the immune system is suppressed and with the release of epinephrine or adrenaline the heart rate increase, there is bronchodilation and perspiration
Where is the pancreas located?
adjacent to the stomach and connected to the duodenum of the small intestine by a pancreatic duct
What are the islets of langerhans?
small cluster of cells scattered throughout the pancreas = secrete insulin
What is the difference between beta cells and alpha cells in their effect on blood glucose concentration?
b cells secrete insulin and lowera the glucose level whereas glucagon scereted by the a cells raise blood glucose levels

FYI glucagon makes type 2 diabetes patients a reduced sensitivity to glucose becaus ethere is so much, another way to look at it is because there is so much glucose the cells become immune to insulin
What is the difference between type 2 and type 1 diabetes?
type 1 or insulin dependent the beta cells do not produce insulin

type 2 or insulin independent the insulin is produced but the alpha cells are in insulin resistant
What are some other endocrine glands that haven't been talked about?
ovaries and testes produce sex steriods that stimulate development of genitalia, secondary sex characteristics, and reproductive cycles
What are receptor antagonists?
mimic hormones and activate receptors

oral contraceptive by binding to the receptor without activating it and thus competint with natural hormone