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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Describe the Hammerling experiment?
Cells of green alga were mixed and matched and it was discovered that only the nucleus (found in the foot of the alga) determined the type of cap the alga produced
Describe the Griffith experiment?
movement of genes from one organism to another is called transformation and transformation requires
1. living microbes
2. polysacchride coat with DNA instructions on how to make coat
Describe the Avery experiment?
removing or destroying proteins of lipids within the cell does not impede the effect of transformation because the transformating factor has properties of DNA, however, destroying the DNA halts all transformation
discovered the hereditary material of bacteriophages is DNA not protein
What is a nucleotide composed of and where is it located?
sugar, phosphate group and nitrogenous base
Describe and name the types of nitrogenous bases?
Purine (11) = large base adenine and guanine

Pyrimidine (6) = small bases cytosine, thymine and uracil
What is Chargaff's rule of DNA?
1. nucleotides form complementary pairs, a=t and g=c
2. there is always equal amounts of purines and pyrimidines
What occurs between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the hydroxyl group of another what happens?
a poshodiester bond is formed during dehydration synthesis
Who was Rosalind franklin?
she studied the three-dimensional structure of DNA and foiund through x-ray diffraction that DNA had a helical shape
Possible ways DNA is replicated?
1. conservative
- parental DNA intact
- all new daughter strand
- old an new are intermingled
3. semiconservative
- new DNA is a mix of 1 parental strand and 1 new strand
Describe the Meselson-Stahl experiment?
grew bacteria in a medium with heavy nitrogen that transferred to regular nitrogen which demonstrated semiconservative replication
Describe process of DNA replication?
-double helix unzips
-each strand is copied during the s phase of the cell cycle
-sister chromatids are formed that will be seperated during mitosis or meiosis
Describe steps of the replication process?
-the double helix is unwound at place of origin
-helicase is unzipping enzyme and breaking it into 2 daughter DNA duplexes

Reading/writing polymerase
-reads template strand of dna
-makes a complementary copy
-allows template + new copy to reform double helix
ules do DNA polymerase have to follow?
1. reads template from 3 end to 5 end
2.writes complementary strand from 5 end to 3 end
3. DNA needs a bit of double strand or primer to get started
Explain the difference between a leading and laggin strand of DNA?
leading strand replicates toward fork and goes in the direction of the unzipping (looks like it's zipping back up on a small scale)

lagging strand replicates away from fork with okazaki fragments and discontinuous synthesis
What "glues" Okazaki fragments together with the laggin strand during the replication process?
DNA ligase
If you have the following template of DNA:
a. which is the 5 end?
b. which direction will this be read by the DNA plymerase
c. what will be the complementary strand made of?
a. the 5 end starts with the phosphate group
b. it is the leading strand and will be read from 3 to 5 and written from 5 to 3
List the stages of replication?
- always occurs at the same site


-exact details unclear
List key facts about eukaryotic DNA replication?
eukaryotes have mulitple, large chromosomes with mulitple origins of replication
What is the one gene/ one polypeptide hypothesis?
genes produce thir effects by specifying the structure of proteins