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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the 7 Properties of Life:
Cellular Organization = all living things are composed of cells

Complex and Ordered

Sensitivity/respond to environment

Grwoth, Development, and Reproduction

Energy Utilization = through metabolism

Evolutionary Adaption

Maintain Homeostasis
What is the anagram for the elements that all living organisms are based around?
What are the different hierarchical levels of the biological world?
Cellular Level
Organismal Level
Populational Level
What are the divisions of the Cellular Level?
What are the divisions of the Organismal Level?
Organ System
What are the divisions of the Populational Level; describe each?
Population = a group of organisms of the same species living in the same place

Species = all the population of a particular kind of organism; similar in appearance and able to interbreed

Community = all the populations of different species living together in one place

Ecosystem = physiological habitat of a biological community = all living and non-living things; plants, animals, climate

Biosphere = planet
What are thesteps involved in the Scientific Method?
Observe = systematic observation of interest

Question = function and purpose

Hypothesize = tentative answer to question; needs to be testable and falsifiable

Prediction = "If" and "Then" statements


Develop Theory
What is inductive reasoning and what part of the scientific method does it apply to?
logic that flows from the specific to the general

hypothesis and prediction
What is deductive reasoning and what part of the scientific method does it apply to?
logic that flows from general to specific

observation and question
What is "intelligent design"?
creationism without saying God

it is not testable and therefore NOT science
What is a theory?
an idea that has been tested repeatedly, but has never been falsified and supports an underlying phenomenon
What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle?
Original genotypic proportions in a population will remain constant as long as

population is large

mates at random

experiences no mutation or immigration

is not affected by selection
How does evolution result?
from any cause in change in a population's genetic variation
What are the five agents of evolutionary change or gene frequency?
Mutation - relatively rare

Gene Flow - moving of alleles/gene from one population to another (pollination) and makes population similar

Nonrandom Mating - inbreeding is most common form and decrease in porportion of heterozygotes

genetic Drift - random fluctuation in allele frequency over time by chance
-bigger effect in small populations, sampling error, and decrease in variation

includes: "bottleneck effect" = drastic reduction of population
"founder effect" = rare alleles are enhanced in a small population

Selection - only agent that produces ADAPTIVE evolutionary changes, variation is heritable,and picks and chooses variations
Who was Charles Lyell?
author of "Principles of Geology"

and believed in uniformatarianism - the world is in constant flux and things were constantly becoming extinct while others emerged
What is catastrophism?
the great flood as a geological explanation for the way the world is
What is "Perfection of Structure"?
possible for organisms to do whatever they need to do to stay alive and produce offspring.

fitness = combination of all traits that help organisms survive and reproduce in their environment.
What is endemism?
belonging exclusively to a particular place
What is adaptive radiation?
a single species that migrated to a different place and diversified to fill different jobs in their new environment
What is a niche?
the ecological job of an animal/plant/etc.
When did Darwin set sail on his 5 year journey aboard the H.M.S. Beagle and when did he return?
1831 and returned in 1836

wrote "On The Origin of Species" in 1859
Explain "descent of modification"?
offspring simply became diversified from ancestors
What did Darwin study and who influenced him?
studied domestication of plants and animals

select traits

artificial selection


Influenced by Mlthus the economist and mathematician and by Charles Lyell the man who proposed uniformatarianism
What is artificial selection?
the intentional reproduction of individuals in a population that have a desired trait
What did Thomas Malthus propose?
that the human population grows geometrically (2,6,18,54)

the resources grow arithmetically (2, 4, 6, 8)

Therefore, there is competition for resources, habitats, and mates

"Struggle for Existence"
What is natural selection?
elements in the environment that allow for adaption
Why do things change?
because variation is eliminated

organisms vary

environmental selection
Who was Alfred Russel Wallace?
He had the same idea about evolution's existence and developed it independently of Darwin
What is microevolution?
changes within a species

can lead to macroevolution if there are enough genertic changes in the gene frequency throughout time
What is an allele?
a gene type for something that posesses the instructions for making a particular protein
What is genotype?
copies of a particular gene that codes for information
What is phenotype?
the result or physical expression of the genotype
Out of the 5 things that can change gene frequency, which two spread variation around the most?
gene flow and nonrandom mating because it promotes inbreeding and both allows population to become very similar
Does natural selection act on phenotype or genotype?
it directly acts on phenotype which then indirectly effects genotype (delivery device)
What is polymorphism and where does it come from?
"many forms" = it is the result of more than one version of an organism (more than one allele of a gene)

results from mutation of a physical change or from recombination
What are the forces of evolution?
mutation = produces variation or the "raw material" of evolution

Gene flow = "evens out" variation

Nonrandom mating = decreases hterozygosity

Genetic drift = reduces variation especially in small populations

Natural selection = acts against a specific trait
- source of mortality
Look at pictures of disruptive selection, directional selection, and stabilizing selection:
directional = pushes pop in specific direction

stabilizing = favors average and pop narrows
produces extreme phenotypes and range of pop gets smaller

disruptive = causes a pop to contain individuals exhibiting two different phenotypes
What are the constraints on evolution?
1. history/ancestors = can only modify what's already there...humans can never have wings

2. existing variation = same thing

3. compromise

4. not always adaptive = diseases based on bioevoltuion
List some evidence of evolution:
darwin's finches
industrial melanism
extinction periods (5)
What is homology?
structures that may look and function differently but come from the same origins of ancestors
What is macroevolution?
evolution among species or speciation = collection of population of a specific kind of organism

geographic distribution = cosmopolitan or endemic (restricted areas)

contiguous vs. isolated

genetic variation
What is a typological species?

based on physical characteristics

used for organizing fossils into species

ignores variation because oif picking a "type" or typical example of a specimen/species
What is the biological species concept?
developed by Mayr

natural group of naturally or potentially interbreeding organisms that are REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED from other groups

excludes hybrids and plants
What is convergent evolution and give some examples?
two different species adapting to similar environments in similar ways

two species independently evolve to have a similar function and structure but have DISSIMILAR ANCESTORY

marsupials and placental mammals, flippers in fish, peguins and dolphins and wings in birds, bats and insects
What are the reproductive isolating mechanisms?
prezygotic - prevent the formation of a zygote


postzygotic - prevent the proper functioning of zygotes after the form
What are the prezygotic isolating mechanisms?
geographic isolation - species occurs in different areas, seperated by a physical barrier

ecological iso - species occur in the same area but occupy different habitats, ground/canopy

temporal iso - breeding seasons are different

behavioral iso - species differ in mating rituals

mechanical iso - structural differences prevent mating

prevention of genetic fusion - gametes of one species function poorly with gametes of another species
What are the postzygotic isolating mechanisms?
hybrid inviability and infertility - hybrid embryo doesn't develop properly and hybrid adult cannot reproduce or cannot survive in nature
What is allopatric speciation?
means "different places"

main way in which speciation occurs

population that has been fragmented by a barrier

stops gene flow due to isolation, but keeps all other forces of evolution
What is geographic speciation?
causes changes over time as the species becomes seperated thus, leading to reproductive isolation
What is sympatric isolation?
means "same place"

seperate species occur without seperation due to:
disruptive selection (one mountain moves two)
What is polyploidy?
an individula that has more than two sets of chromosomes and thus double the amount of genes
What is sympatric isolation?
means "same place"

seperate species occur without seperation due to:
disruptive selection (one mountain moves two)
What is polyploidy?
an individula that has more than two sets of chromosomes and thus double the amount of genes
What is gradualism?
the view that evolutionary change occurs very slowly
What is punctuated equilibrium?
proposed by elderidge (spoke at KSU and J Gould)

species experience long periods of little or no evolutionary change, punctuated by bursts if evolutionary change occuring over geologically short intervals

What is speciation?
the process in which one species can give rise to many descendant species
What is systematics?
name and organization based on evolution and taxonomy

organization not only by similarity, but by who's related to who

What are taxa?
or taxon is the genus and species or name of a givem organism that is based upon shared characteristics with other organisms
What is the Linnaean Hierarchy?
developed by Carolus Linnaeus a botanist

a classification system for all living organisms

What is the opposite of homology?
not based on common ancestor, but on adaption to a specific function

i.e. flight
What are the 3 kinds of homologous characters?
shared primitive characters - unchanged from ancestors

unique, derived characters - different from ancestors and unique for a linneage

shared, derived characters - different from ancestors, but shared by 2 or more linneages
What is cladistics?
main school of systematics that uses shared derived characteristic
What is phylogeny or the phylogenetic tree?
it is a hypothesis about the evoltionary relationships you are studying

similarities and differences between species

which are closely related and which are not
What is a monophlyetic group?
most recent common ancestors of that group and ALL of its descendants
What isa paraphyletic group?
most recent common ancestors of the group, but not all of its descendants

dinosaur without hawk
What is a polyphyletic group?
does not include most recent common ancestor of all members in the group

bats and hawk
What is the Cambrian explosion?
500 mya

basic set-up for all organisms through radiation

prior to = multi-cellular organsims
What are the kingdoms of life?
What are the three domains of life?
bacteria archaea and eukarya
Describe the domain bacteria?
most abundant organism on earth

extracts N from air and recylces C and S

perfroms much of the worlds photosynthesis and responsible for many forms of diseases

composed of plasma membrane, cell wall and capsule (protein and carb secretion)
Describe the domain archaea?
prokaryotes that are more closely related to eukaryotes

cell wall that lack peptidoglcan and lipids have different structure than in any other organism

are grouped into three catergories: methanogens extremophiles and nonextremo archaebacteria
What are methanogens?
it is a division of the domain archaea

uses H2 to reduce CO2 and CH4

strict anaerobes that live in swamps
What are extremeophiles?
a division of the domain archaea

include thermophiles = high temp
halophiles = high salt
acidophiles = low pH
What are nonextreme archaeabacteria?
a division of the domain archaea

grow in same environment bacteria does
Describe the domain Eukarya?
appeared about 2.5 bya

structure/function allowed multicellular life to evolve through endosymbiosis

developed complex cell organization with extensive endomembrane system divided into functional compartments of cell
What are the four eukaryotic kingdoms?
protista, fungi, platae, and animalia
Describe the protista division under the eukarya domain?
unicellular organisms with few multicellular organism

paraphyletic & not plant animal or fungi

divided into seven major groups along with "orphans"
What are the key characteristics of Eukaryotes?
- allows for increased subcellular specialization in compartments

- allows for differentiation of cells into tissues

sexual reproduction
- allows for greater genetic diversity
What is a virus?
NON LIVING but PARASITIC organism that doesn't want to kill its host because then it couldn't make more copies of itself (purpose)

has two things in common:
protein superstructure = capsid that houses some sort of genetic material (DNA or RNA)

don't have a lot of the properties of life; however DO evolve but require a living cell
How, basically, does a virus work?
enters cell
hijack protein synthesis machinery (ribosomes)
replicates genetic material
makes more capsids instead of what cell is supposed to make

DNA - mRNA - Protein
viral DNA - transcription - translation
What is a retrovirus?

virus that carries RNA instead of DNA

reverse transcriptase

viral RNA cDNA mRNA Protein
How do bacteriophages infect and/or kill their host cell?
lytic cycle = attach, inject, copies, and lysis or kills cell with release or replicated bacteriophages

lysogenic cycle = integrates itself into cells genome (virus DNA sitting = prophage), reproduction, when ready exits bacterial chromosome, and continues to lysic cycle and copies itself and kills
What are glycoprotein spikes used for by a virus and how do they gain entrance into the host cell?
gain entrance by macrophages and T-cells

detect these receptors by glcoprotein spikes on the viruses outer surface
What are prions and some examples of diseases that prions can cause?
prions = no capsid infectious proteins that are misfolded and misfold other correctly folded proteins when come in contact

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE include:
mad cow or bovine SE and takes a long time to infect
Creutzfeldt-Jakob = humans
Kuru = canabolism in Papua NG
Describe a prokaryote?
simple in form and one of three basic structures:
1 bacillus = straight and rod-shaped
2 coccus = spherical
3 spirillium = long and helical

coccus and bacillus forms colonies

spirillum makes no association with other cells
Some prokaryotic forms release spores, what are they?
unicellular bodies that grow in new bacterial individuals = gametes or haploid reprocution cells
List 7 differences between P and E?
1 unicellularity = P are single celled
2 cell size = P are smaller
3 chromosomes = P circular DNA in nucleoid
4 cell division and genetic recomb = P - binary fission E - mitosis, P - asexual E sexual meiosis
5 compartmentalization = P lack organelles
6 flagella = P- propel E - whiplike
7 metabolic diversity = P more
What is the difference between gram positive and gram negative and what are they used for
gram + = thicker peptidoglycan wall and stain purple

gram - = less peptidoglycan and stain red

used to determine whether bacteria is antibiotic resistant or gram -

peptidoglycan = bacterial cell wall
What is an autotroph?
organisms that obtain their carbon from inorganic CO2

acquire energy and nutrients either through:
photoautotrophs = sunlight chemoautotrophs = harvest energy from inorganic chemicals

inorganic = CO2
What is a heterotroph?
organisms that obtain their carbon from organic (glucose)

aquire energy and nutrients from either:
photoheterotrophs = sunlight
chemoheterotrophs = harvest energy from organic molecules
What is endosymbiosis?
proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as symbiotic bacteria
In the domain Eukarya which of the four kingdoms is the most diverse?
protista because it is paraphyletic and is not representative of any evolutionary relationships

are grouped based on the fact they are not fungi, plants, or animals

variable with no uniting features
Because of endosymbiosis, what do all mit and chlorplasts have?
1 own DNA and ribosomes
2 internal membrane systems
3 double outer membrane
4 ability to self-replicate Binary fission
5 protein synthesis
All Euk. cells carry around 2 copies of their DNA called _______ = ___ and ___ through_________. When fertilized this is called a ________.
egg and sperm
How do protists reproduce?
mostly asexually through mitosis

some have sexual phase through meiosis
What is the life cycle of protists?
called diplontic

adult goes through meiosis and produces either an egg or sperm

fertilization occurs

mitosis and then adult
What is the life cycle of alternation of generation?
egg and sperm

What are the 7 lineages of protista?
1 diplomonadia/parabasalida
2 euglenozoa
3 alveolata
4 stramenopila
5 rhodophyta
6 chlorophyta
7 choanoflagellida
Describe the diplomonadia/parabasalida lineage of protista?
unicellular/single-celled euk cell

lack mitochondria

Describe euglenozoa lineage of protista?
2 groups

photosynthetic and contain chloro, flagellum and mit

chlorophyll a b and carotenoids


single mito in each cell

Describe the alveolata division of the protists?
include dinoflagellates
and ciliates

beneath cell membrane all have flattened sacs called aveolae/alveoli

Describe the dinoflagellates and what division they are under?
dino under alveolata under protist under euk

photosynthetic (chloro a and c) unicells with two flagella

mainly asexual unless under stress

seperate from all other eu because has no histones or protein spoools
Describe apicomplexes?
spore forming parasites of animals


best know is plasmodium = causes malaria
Describe ciliates?
unicells with contractile vacuoles and cilia

have 2 nuclei:
micronuclei and macro

Describe stramenopila division of protists?

brown algae:
look like plants
reproduce similar to plants = alt of gen

chloro a and c
like small lids one half sitting inside the other

oomycetes:water molds
parasites of fish
saprobes = eat dead things
Describe rhodophyta of the division protista?
red algae:
contain photo pigment
alt of gen
Describe choanoflagellida?
common ancestor of all sponges and animals
What are some "orphans" under the protista division?
amoebas - unicells that crawl around and engulf food particles

foraminferans - unicelss enclosed in cells

radiolorians - like foraminferans with silica shells and pseudopodia (swimming)

slime molds:2 kinds

acellular (multicellular plasmodial)and crawls around eating dead things
develops sporangia = full of spores = gametes haploid repro cells

cellular = single celled masses