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43 Cards in this Set

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What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Forms genes that regulate cell growth and reproduction>

Is a double stranded helix held together by hydrogen bonds and has a deoxyribose sugar.

Nitrogenous bases: Adenine, Thymine Cytosine, Guanine.
What are the levels of organization in life from atom to biosphere.
Atom
Molecule
Tissue
Organ
Organ System
Organism
Population
Community
Ecosytem
Biosphere
Why is science the social responsibility of all citizens?
Everyone, including son-scientists can use science.

Science has improved out life (eg. agriculture and medicine)

Science fosters technology that is potentially dangerous.

Science is impartial and attempts to study natural phenomena without making ethical or moral decisions.

The responsibility for the best use of scientific knowledge rests with everyone.
Distinguish toxonimic classification from the largest category to the smallest category.
Kingdom Phylum Class order family genus species
Homeostasis
The ability to adjust to a changing environment
Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction
Asexual: one parent. No egg or sperm.

Sexual: two parents
Proton
A positively charged subatomic particle located in the nucleus.
Neutron
A neutral subatomic particle located in the nucleus.
Electron
A subatomic particle with a single negative charge. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom.
Reactant
The starting material in a chemical reaction. (substances that react with one another.)
Product
The ending material of a chemical reaction. (the result of the reaction.)
Organic molecules
Molecules associated with living things. contain carbon and hydrogen.

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Covalent Bond
Atoms share electrons to make their outer shell complete
Ionic bond
Atoms transfer electrons rather than share them. Elements are stable when the outer shell is complete.
Hydrogen bonds
Formed by the attraction of the electropositive charge of a Hydrogen atom of a water molecule to the electonegative charge of an O atom.
Diatomic elements
Both atoms are the same. ex: N2, O2, Cl2
Acid
pH0 to pH7
Cell Membrane
(Plasma Membrane) surrounds cell composed of phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded.
Cytoplasm
The fluid interior of the cell
Nucleus
Stores genetic information as genes made of DNA.
DNA works with RNA to synthesize cell proteins and control cell
Chromatin
A thread-like material containing DNA; when cells divides, chromatin condenses into rod-like chromosomes
Chromosomes
"Colored Body" in the nuclear plasm
Nucleoli
Produces ribosmal RNA (rRna), necessary to form ribosomes in cytoplasm.
Nuclear Envelope
(Nuclear Membrane) A double membrane with nuclear pores that permit proteins to end and ribosomes to leave
Organelles
A structure with a specialized function within a cell. Membrane enclosed organelles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Appear as branching tubules
Compartmentalize cytoplasm
Transport substances.
2 kinds of Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER - Lacks ribosomes, produces lipids. In some cells produces steroids.
Rough ER - Has ribosomes, produces proteins.
Ribsomes
Coded in nucleoli, function in cytoplasm. **Function in protein synthesis** Are either free or attached to endoplasmic reticulum.
Polyribosomes
Groups of ribosomes making the same protein
Golgi Apparatus
Structured as stacks of flattened saccules. Package, store, modify and distribute molecules produced by ER
Molecules such as hormones are packaged in secretory vesicles and moved to cell membrane for discharge.
Saccules
A fluid filled inner ear chamber containing hair cells that detect the position of the nead relative to gravity.
Lysosomes
Released from Golgi apparatus - contains hydrolytic enzymes to digest macromolecules including carbohydrates, fats, proteins and nucleic acids. Function for intracellular digestion when material(large molecules, bacteria) in vesicles is fused with lysosomes, or may breakdown organelles or the cell itself.
Perixisome
Surrounded by a single membrane. Function is to detoxify alcohol and break down fats. Contain enzymes that produce H2O2 as by-product. H2O2 is toxic to cells, but peroxisomes convert it to H2O.
Mitochondria (P) Mitochondrion(S)
In both plants and animal cells. Structure is double membrane organelle with inner membrane forming shelves called cristae that project into matrix. Function as "powerhouse" pf cell - Produces ATP for cellular energy via aerobic cellular respiration.
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate - The main energy source for cells.
Chloroplasts
Only in plant cells and photsynthetic protists Function to carry on photosythesis where carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy is used to produce glucose and oxygen.
Chlorophyll
A green pigment that absorbs solar energy, and makes leaves green.
Cytoskeketon
Helps maintain cell's shape, anchor organelles and allows cell and its organelles to move.
Microtubules
Have motor molecules kinesin and dyenin, some of which move chromosomes or vesicles.
Centrioles
Microtubules arranged in a ring of 9 sets of 3 microtubules [9(3)+0 pattern] found in animal cells - centrioles lying at right angles to one another replicate cell division.
Cilia
Appendages of the cell that have a [9(2)+2] pattern of microtubules, which slide along one another.
Cilia
Short fingerlike projections
Undulipodia
"Flagella" Long whiplike extensions