Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the range of ATP produced net after cellular respiration? Why is there a range?
30-36 ATP, the range is due to the hydrogens leaking across the intermembrane space of the mitochondria to the inner matrix.
How many hydrogens cross the membrane per NADH? How many ATP is this approx?
10 H per NADH

creates 2.5 ATP each
How many hydrogens cross the membrane per FADH2? How many ATP is this approx?
6 H per FADH2

creates 1.5 ATP each
What is a cofactor?
A non-bonded molecule necessary for enzyme function
What is a prosthetic group? What is are 2 examples
A molecule covalently bonded to an enzyme at the active site complex

Thiamine pyrophosphate uses Vitamine B (aka thiamine)
alpha-ketoglutarate dephydrogenase complex uses TPP
What is penetrance?
The likelihood a genotype will give a phenotype
What enzymes are involved in the first 2 steps of glycolysis?

What is used?

What is special about the 2nd step?
Hexokinase uses 1 ATP
Glucose + ATP > G-6-P

PFK used 1 ATP
G-6-P + ATP > F-1,6 bP
This is the committed step, once here, Gibbs << 0 very spontaneous for the rest of glycolysis
How is PFK regulated?
FPK is allosterically inhibited by ATP

High ATP [] = decreased PFK activity
What does PDC do? What is produced?

How is it regulated?
Decarboxylates pyruvate from glycolysis.

Releases CO2 and uses H to reduce NAD+

Adds coenzyme A > acetyl CoA

PDC is regulated by AMP:ATP []

High AMP activates PDC
What does Krebs Cycle produce PER GLUCOSE?

Where does it take place in euk and prok?
2 acetyl CoA's per glucose

4 CO2

In the mitochondrial matix in euk

Bacteria use their cell membranes, no organelles
For bac vs euk Krebs, which is more efficient? Why?
Euk needs to transport NADH in to the matrix to use in e- transport, this costs energy.

Bac don't need to transport across any membranes so it is more efficient, no energy spend on transport.
Give the relative [] differences of the mitochondria spaces
Intermembrane space is high H+, matrix is highly electron dense
How many ATP and H+ are produced by FADH2 reoxidation?
6 Protons are produced

4 H+/ATP conversion means 1.5 ATP are produced
How many ATP and H+ are procduced per NADH reoxidation?
10 H+

4H+/ATP means 2.5 ATP/NADH