Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Kingdom Animalia
-Mulicellular Heterotrophs
-No Cell Walls
-Monophyletic Group (evolved from choanoflagellates)
Characteristics of Animals
-Diversity in form (invertebrates and vertebrates)
-Sexual reproduction: Gametic Meiosis, Egg Nonmotile, flagellated sperm
-Active Movement
-Cells move during development and life
Embryonic Development
Zygote-> Morula (solid ball of cells
Morula-> blastula (hollow ball)
Blastula->gastrula (ball folds into form a hollow sac with one opening:Blastophore)
-Blastophore becomes mouth or anus
Subkingdom Parazoa
Contains Phylum Porifera
Phylum Porifera(sponges)
-free swimming larvae
-Adults sessile
-Filter Feeders= water comes through pores into *spongocoel* and leaves through *osulum*. *Choanocytes* move water using flagella
*Spicules* CaCO3 form skeleton
*Spongin* (protein) forms body
-Reproduction- Some splitting, and some have eggs and sperm
Subkingdom Eumetazoa
-Rest of animals
-Radial or Bilateral Symmetry
-Body Plan(development of tissues with structure and function)
-Tissue layers: Diploblastic(2 layers in embryo)
*Ectoderm* outer layer: source of epidermis and nervous system
*Endoderm* inner layer: becomes gut(gastrodermis)
=found in Radiata
-Triploblastic (3 cell layers in embryo)
*Mesoderm* middle layer: most organs form from this tissue
=Found in all Bilataria
Eumetazoa Transitions
-Radial Symmetry
-Bilateral Symmetry
-Body plan w/ dorsal and ventral regions
-Body plan w/ anterior and posterior regions
-Development of Body cavity(allows for development of efficient organ systems)
-Development of *protosomes->*deuterosomes
Bilateral Symmetry
-Move more efficiently
-Seek food better
-Escape Predators better
-Central nerve cord
-Have fluid filled cavity(coelom)b/t mesoderm and endoderm
-Have fluid filled cavity within mesoderm and surrounded by mesodermal tissue.
-Have circulatory system
Better than pseduo b/c...
-Endoderm and mesoderm are better able to communicate
-Allows for development of more complex digestive system.
Protosomes vs. Deuterosomes
1. "first mouth"
-blastophore becomes mouth
-cell fate determined
2. "second mouth"
-blastophore becomes anus
-any cell can develp a complete orgainism
Segmentation Advantages
-More flexible locomotion
-More opportunity for specialization
*Annelida, Arthropoda, and Chordata
-Radial Symmetry
-Phylum Cnidaria and Ctenophora
-Tissue but no true organs
Phylum Cnidaria
-nerve net
-many biolum.
*Cnidocytes* contain *nematocysts: barbed projectiles that penetrate prey, propelled by water pressure
-Internal digestion
- 1 opening:Mouth/Anus from blastophore
~Life Cyle~
-larva= *planula*: cilia to swim
-polyp= sessile, have a holdfast to anchor
-medusa=umbrella shaped and motile
Class Hydrozoa
-Both polyp and medusa
-Marine and colonial
-Portuguese man of war
Class Scyphozoa (jelly fish)
-Medusa dominant
-Ring of muscular epithelial tissue propels animal
-separate sexes
-inconspicous polyp produces multiple medusa
Class Cubozoa (box jellyfish)
-Medusa box shaped
-tentacle at each corner
-inconspicuous polyps
-Some fatal to humans
Class Anthzoa (sea anemones and corals)
-Largest class
-Polyp dominant
-Most have symbiotic algae(food via photosynthesis)
*Anemones- fairly free moving, muscular
*Corals- CaCO exoskeletons
Phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies or sea walnuts)
-Radially symmetrical
-Anal pores
-Fused cilia for locomotion
-most are biolum.
-Bilateral symmetry
-Solid worms with no body cavity
-Definite head and organs
Phylum Platyhelminthes(flatworms)
-Ribbon shaped
-most are parasitic
-Incomplete gut
-Excretory system w/ flame cells to regulate water balance
-No circulatory system
*Hermaphroditic w/ internal fertilization
Class Turbellaria
-Only free living flat worms
-Cilia for movt
-Sensory pits
-include planaria
Class Trematoda (flukes)
-All parasitic
-Use mouth to feed
-Attach via suckers or hooks
*Pathogens of humans: Liver Flukes (raw fish)and Blood Flukes
Class Cestoda(tape worms)
-all parasitic
-absorb food through skin
*Scolex: attachment organ with suckers
*neck:attaches scolex to proglottids
*proglotidds: hermaphroditic units, making sperm and egg, embryos develop and shed through feces
*Human Pathogen: Beef Tapeworm
Phylum Nertea (ribbon worms)
-like free living flat worms
-often large
*proboscis: long muscular tube used to capture prey
-Simplest of Bilateria
-simplest animal to have circulatory system
-Pseudocoel serves as hydrostatic skeleton
-Movt more efficient
-No defined circulatory system
-complete digestive system
Phylum Nematoda(roundworms)
-Covered my cuticle
-Longitudinal Muscles
-Many are *parasites, mouth often has *stylets for piercing, *pharynx sucks up food
Human Pathogen *Trichonisis (raw pork)
-No cilia or flagella
-Sexual (dioecious)
Phylum Rotifera
-Free living
*Corona* ciliated food gathering organ at tip (filter feeders)
-"wheel animals" b/c of beating cilia
-Separate sexes
*Parthenogensis- development of unfertilized eggs
*Bdellid- no sexual reproduction ever seen