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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Carbohydrates are carbon compounds that contain large quantities of ______ groups.
hydroxyl
The simplest carbohydrates also contain either an ______ moiety (these are termed polyhydroxyaldehydes) or a ketone moiety (polyhydroxyketones).
aldehyde
The simplest carbohydrates also contain either an aldehyde moiety (these are termed polyhydroxyaldehydes) or a ______ moiety (polyhydroxyketones).
ketone
All carbohydrates can be classified as either ______, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides.
monosaccharides
All carbohydrates can be classified as either monosaccharides, ______ or polysaccharides.
oligosaccharides
All carbohydrates can be classified as either monosaccharides, oligosaccharides or ______.
polysaccharides.
All c______ can be classified as either monosaccharides, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides.
carbohydrates
The predominant carbohydrates encountered in the body are structurally related to the aldotriose glyceraldehyde and to the ______ ______.
ketotriose dihydroxyacetone
The predominant carbohydrates encountered in the body are structurally related to the ______ ______ and to the ketotriose dihydroxyacetone
aldotriose glyceraldehyde
All carbohydrates contain at least one asymmetrical (chiral) carbon and are, therefore, ______ ______.
optically active
carbohydrates can exist in either of two conformations, as determined by the orientation of the hydroxyl group about the asymmetric carbon farthest from the ______.
carbonyl
With a few exceptions, those carbohydrates that are of physiological significance exist in the ______.
D-conformation
The mirror-image conformations, called ______, are in the L-conformation.
enantiomers
The monosaccharides commonly found in humans are classified according to the number of carbons they contain in their ______ structures.
backbone
The major monosaccharides contain how many carbon atoms.
4 to 6
Triose
Ex: Glyceraldehyde, Dihydroxyacetone
Tetrose
Ex: Erythrose
Pentose
Ex: Ribose, Ribulose, Xylulose
Hexose
EX: Glucose, Galactose, Mannose, Fructose
Heptose
Ex: Sedoheptulose
Nonose
Neuraminic acid
also called sialic acid