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18 Cards in this Set

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transformation
kill the pathogenic bacteria with heat and then mix the cell remains with lving bacteria of the nanpathogenic strain, some of the lving cells become pathogenic.
bacteriophages/phages
bacteria-eaters, viruses that infect bacteria.
DNA Polymerases
Elongation of new DNA at a replication fork is catalyzed by enzymes.
mismatch repair
cells use special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides.
nucleotide excision repair
the enzymes involved in filling the gap are a DNA plymerase and ligase. DAN repair of this type is called nucleotide excision repair.
transcription
the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA.
translation
the actual synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA. the cell must translate the base sequence of an mRNA molecule into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.
mRNA
protein-coding genes, it carries a genetic message from the DNA to the protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell.
template strand
during transcription, the gene determineds the sequence of bases along the length of an mRNA molecule. for each gene, only one of the two DNA strands is transcribed.
the triplet code
for each gene, one DNA strand functions as a template for transcription. the base-pairing rules for DNA synthesis also guide transcription, but U takes the place of T in RNA. during the transcription, the mRNA is read as a sequence of base triplets, called codons. each codon specifies an amino acid to be added to the growing polypeptide chain. the mRNA is read in the 5'-> 3' direction.
transcription-initiation
after RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, the DNA strands unwind, and the polymerase initiates RNA synthesis at the start point on the template strand.
transcription-Elongation
the polymerase moves downstream, unwinding the DNA and elongating the RNA transcript 5'->3'. in the wake of transcription, the DNA strands reform a double helix.
transcription-termination
eventually, the RNA transcript is released, and the polymerase detaches from the DNA.
replication fork
a replication fork is a Y-shaped region where the new strands of DNS are elongating.
DNA polymerases
elongation of new DNA at a replication fork is catalyzed by enzymes called DNA polymerases.
Helicase
unwinds parental double helix at replication forks
single-strand binding protein
binds to and stablizes single-stranded DNA until it can be used as a template
topoisomerase
corrects 'overwinding' ahead of replication forks by breaking, swiveling, and rejoning DNA strands.