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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In the somatic and autonomic nervous system, how many neurons are between the CNS and effector?
-somatic: 1
-autonomic: 2
Name the parts of the neural pathway of the ANS from the CNS to target tissue,
-CNS > preganglionic neuron > autonomic ganglion > postganglionic neuron > target tissue
What is the name for a bundle of cell bodies?
-CNS: nucleus
-PNS: ganglion
What is the name for a bundle of axons?
-CNS: tract
-PNS: nerve
What is the function of the sympathetic nervous system? Give an example.
-slows digestion
-prepares for "flight or fight;" intense action
-ie inhibition of salivary gland secretion, dilation of pupils and ejaculation
Name the major neurotransmitter associated with the sympathetic nervous system.
-norepinepherine
What is the function of the parasympathetic nervous system? Give an example.
-stimulates digestion
-prepares for "rest or digest;" low intense action
-ie constriction of bronchi in lungs, constriction pupils and erection
Name the major neurotransmitter associated with the parasympathetic nervous system.
-acetylcholine
Where is acetylcholine found in the nervous system?
-all preganglionic neurons
-all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
-some sympathetic postganglionic neurons ie blood vessels
Describe the receptors for acetylcholine.
1) cholinergic nicotine receptors
-nicotine agonist
-cation channels
2) cholinergic muscarinic receptors
-muscarine agonist
-acts through G protein and second messenger system
Where is norepinephrine found in the nervous system?
-most postganglionic sympathetic neurons
Describe the receptors for norepinephrine.
1) adrenergic receptors
-alpha receptors more responsive to NE
-beta receptors more responsive to E
-acts through G protein and second messenger system
Where is epinephrine produced?
-medulla (core) of adrenal glands
Define neuromuscular junction.
-location where neurons comes near muscle cells
What is a motor end plate?
-the folded skeletal muscle membrane in close contact with motor neuron
What encompasses the endocrine system?
-cells and glands that secrete hormones
What are the 3 types of hormonal signaling? Give an example of each.
1) simple endocrine pathway ie response to low blood pressure
2) simple neurohormone pathway (brain hormones: hypothalamus and posterior pituitary) ie suckling response
3) simple neuroendocrine pathways (involves 2 or more hormones) ie milk production
What are the 3 chemical classifications of hormones?
-peptide or protein hormones
-steriod hormones
-amine hormone
What is the precursor for steriod hormones?
Cholesterol
Steriod hormones are hydro what and generally binds where?
-hydrophobic
-binds inside cell
Amine hormones derived from what?
-amino acid "NH2 group"
What hormones does the hypothalamus secrete?
-antidiuretic hormone
-oxytocin
-releasing hormone
-inhibiting hormone
ADH Where is it released and what does it do?
-antidiuretic hormone
-hypothalamus
-reabaorbtion of water and elevation of blood pressure/volume in kidney
Oxytocin Where is it released and what does it do?
-hypothalamus
-labor contractions in uterus, milk secretion from mamary glands, contractions of ductus derferns and prostate,and ejaculation
Releasing hormone Where is it released and what does it do?
-hypothalamus
-stimulate production of pituitary hormones
Inhibiting hormone Where is it released and what does it do?
-hypothalamus
-inhibits production of pituitary hormones
What hormones does the thyroid gland secrete?
-thyroxine and triiodothyronine
-calcitonin
Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine Where is it released and what does it do?
-thyroid gland
-increase energy and oxygen use,increase growth and development
Calcitonin Where is it released and what does it do?
-thyroid gland
-decrease Ca ion concentration in body fluids; increase bone calcification
What is Goiter and Iodine deficiency?
Enlargement of thyroid gland from lack of iodine and the excessive production of TSH.
From where and what does the pancreas secrete?
-pancreatic islets
-insulin
-glucagon
Insulin Where is it released and what does it do?
-pancreatic islets
-glycogen and lipid formation and storage, uptake of glucose by cells, decrease in blood glucose levels
Glucagon Where is it released and what does it do?
-pancreatic islets
-breakdown of glycogen in liver, mobilization of lipids, increase blood glucose levels
Name the tissues and organelles of the structure and its surrounding membranes associated with muscles from organ to smallest functional unit.
-epimysium > muscle > perimysium > fascicle > endomysium > sarcolemma > muscle fiber (cell) > sarcoplasmic reticulum > myofibrils > sarcomere
What is the part of the sarcolemma that projects into the cells?
T tubule
What is the region where the sarcoplasmic reticulum and T tubule meet called?
-terminal cisternae
What is a triad in a muscle cell?
-2 terminal cisternae and a T tubule
What protein are thin filaments made of?
actin
What protein are thick filaments made of?
myosin
Define the region A band.
Width of thick filaments
Define the region I band.
Area of sarcomere containing only thin filaments
Define the region H zone.
Area of sarcomere containing only thick filaments
What is contained in the H zone?
M line
What is contained in the I band?
Z disk
What is the motor protein of muscles?
myosin molecules
How is ATP stored during resting state?
ADP + phosphocreatine
What is the function of tropomyosin?
blocks binding site on G actin from myosin heads
What is the function of troponin and what is the mechanism behind it?
-moves tropomyosin to expose binding sites of G actin
-calcium ions released from sarcoplasmic reticulum
Define end plate potential.
deporalization of muscle before threshold
Describe the process that occurs during the latent period of muscle contraction (7 steps).
excitation-conduction coupling
1) somatic motor neuron releases ACh at neuromuscular junction
2) net entry of Na ions through ACh receptor-channels initiates muscle action potential
3) action potential from membrane to t-tubules alters conformation of DHP receptor
4) DHP receptor opens RyR on sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases Ca ions
5) Ca ions bind to troponin
6) tropomyosin moves to expose binding site of G-actin
7) muscle contraction (sliding filaments)
Describe the 3 skeletal muscle fiber types.
1) slow twitch: slow to contract, small diameter, long-lasting contraction, fatigue resistant, dark red in color due to myoglobin (stronger relative of hemoglobin)
2) fast twitch (glyolytic): fastest speed of contraction, large diameter, short duration of contraction, easily fatigued, pale in color
3) fast twitch (oxidative): intermediate speed of contraction, medium diameter, fatigue resistant, contains myoglobin
Define motor unit.
motor neuron and all muscle fibers in controls
What are the 3 main components of the cardiovascular system?
-heart
-blood
-blood vessels
What 3 factors can increase blood resistance?
1) distance traveled increase
2) diameter of blood vessel decrease
3) viscosity of blood increase
What are 2 ways of active control of blood flow?
-vasoconstriction and vasodilation
What is a autorhythmic cell?
a cell that can experience an action potential without a motor nueron activation
Describe heart conduction pathways.
-SA node > internodal pathways > AV node > A-V bundle > bundle branch > Purkinje fibers
What is a complete heart block?
Damage to the heart that inhibits the pacemakers (72 bpm)
Define arrhythmias and describe the types (3).
-abnormal heart rate
-bradycardia: slower than normal
-tachycardia: faster than normal
-fibrillation: uncoordinated myocardiocyte contraction
What are the differences in excitation-conduction coupling in myocardocytes?
-Ca inflow through DHP to release Ca from SR "Ca induced Ca release"
-DHP and RyR are not physically linked
-action potential has a longer repolarization phase
Why is the action potential in myocardiocytes longer than skeletal muscles? Why is it important?
-Ca flow delays K permeability
-myocardiocytes cannot stair step to tetanus
In reference to cells, what is a refractory period?
-period of time during which another action potential cannot occur
Define the 4 terms used in an ECG.
-wave: diviation from base line
-segment: section of the base line between waves
-interval: combination of waves and segments
-complex: combination of waves ie QRS complex
Define systole and distole.
-(S) contraction of chambers
-(D) relaxation of chambers
Define stroke volume.
-volume of blood leaving the left ventricle in 1 cardiac cycle
-> SV = EDV - ESV
Define cardiac output.
-volume of blood leaving left ventricle per min
-> cardiac output = heart rate • stroke volume
What electrical event occurs during the P wave?
atrial depolarization
What electrical event occurs during the PQ segment?
conduction through AV node and A-V bundle
What electrical event occurs during the Q wave?
A-V bundle depolarization
What electrical event occurs during the R wave?
righ and left bundle branches depolarization
What electrical event occurs during the S wave?
Purkinje fibers depolarization
What electrical event occurs during the ST segment?
Ventricular depolarization
What electrical event occurs during the T wave?
ventricular repolarization