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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How is CO2 carried in the bloodstream?
It is dissolved in plasma, bound to hemoglobin, or converted by erythrocytes into carbonic acid and most CO2 is caried in the blood as bicarbonate b/c CO2 would decrease the blood pH.
How is heart contraction stimulated?
1) depolarization of the sinoatrial node
2)through the internodal pathway to the atrioventricular node, down the atrioventricular bundle/bundle of His,
3) to Purkinje fibers into R & L ventricles
How is the depolarization of the heart measured and recorded from the surface of the body?
With an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG).
1) depolarization atria P wave
2) depolarization ventricles QRScomplex
3) repolarization of ventricle T wave
What are the duodenal hormones that regulate passage of chyme collectively called? What are they? What do they do?
Enterogastrones. Cholecystokinin(stimulates pancreas for digestive enzymes and gallbaldder for bile)CCK, secretin(stimulate pancreas for bicarbonate)1at hormone discovered, gastric inhibitory peptide(stimulates pancrease for insulin)GIP. All inhibit gastric motility and juice secretions.
What are the sections of the smal intestine? What covers the walls of the small intestine? What are the brush boarder enzymes?
Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Villi covered in microvilli (forms the brush border). Lactase, maltase, sucrase; Peptidases; Nucleases
What is Interstitial fluid?
Fluid derived from plasma that passes out of capillary walls to surronding tissue.
Describe Lymph vessels
Located in the connective tissue around the blood vessels and return lymph to venous system at specific sites.
What are the three functions of the circulatory system in vertebrates?
Transportation 1) red blood cells carries O2 to tissues and CO2 to lungs to be expelled 2)Circulatory system carries absorbed products of digestion through the liver and to cells of the body 3) waste, excess H20, and ions are filtered to capillaries of the kidney and excreted in urine; Regulation 1)hormone transport 2) temperature regulation; and Protection 1)blood clotting 2)Immune defense
B1 Facts
Thiamine, coenzyme in CO2 removal during cellular resperiation
Deficiency:beriberi,weakening of heart,edema
Found in:meat,grains,legumes
B2 Facts
Riboflavin, part of coenzymes FAD and FMN which play metabolic roles
Deficiency:inflamation,break down of skin,eye irritation
Found in: many foods
B3 Facts
Niacin, part of NAD+ and NADP+ Deficiency:Pellagra,iflammation of nerves,mental disorders
Found in:live,lean,meats,and grains
B5 Facts
Pantothenic acid part of coenzyme A a key for carbo and fat metabolism
Deficiency=rare loss of coordination
Found in many foods
B6 Facts
Pyridoxine, coenzyme in many phases of amino acid metabolism
Deficiency anemia,convulsions and irritability
Found in:cereals,vegetables,and meats
B12 Facts
Cyanocobalamin coenzyme in production of nucleic acid metabolism
need secretion from parietal cells intrensic factor so it can absorb in intestines so you do not get low red blood cell count pernicious anemia
Coenzyme in fat synthesis and amino acid metabolism
Deficiency:rare,deprssion, nausea
Found in:meat,vegetables
Folic acid
Coenzyme in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism
Found in:green vetetables
Are proteins fully digested in the stomach? What do the stomach parietal cells secrete? Chief cells? What is the stomach's pH?
No. HCl and intinsic factor. Pepsinogen. 2.
Describe amphibian and reptile circulation.
They have a pulmonary and systemic circulation. They have a three chambered heart. Amphibians can also use cutaneous respiration through their skin.
Describe mammalian and bird hearts.
They are four chambered and keep oxygen-rich and poor blood separate. The heartbeat starts in the sinoatrial node, a descendant of the sinus venosus.
How do mammals get vitamin K?
They have to rely on intestinal bacteria.
How does blood get back to the heart from the veins?
Through venous pumps and venous valves.
How does NO in the blood stream affect the circulatory system?
It expands blood vessels and increases blood flow.
How is fat absorption different than other nutrients?
It is absorbed into the lymphatic system before entering the blood.
How many mm Hg are in an atmosphere? What is partial pressure?
760. The pressure contribute by a single gas in a mixture.
Is obesity generally caused by a lack of leptin or reduced sensitivity to leptin?
Reduced sesitivity to leptin.
The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland. Where are the hormones of the pancreased produced and what are the two most important ones?
Islets of Langerhans. Insulin and glucagon.
What are essential nutrients?
Nutrients the body cannot itself produce. They include vitamins, essential amino acids (nine for humans), unsaturated fatty acids, and essential minerals.
What is Blood? does plasma consist of? Serum?
Blood is a special connective tissue composed of the fluid plasma. metabolites, wastes, hormones, ions, and proteins.
Proteins (plasma proteins) include albumin(from liver and balance or stabilize blood osmolarity and is an important blood buffer), globulins, and fibrnogen(also liver), which helps blood to clot.
Serum is blood w/o fibrinogen.
what is the life span and fuction of granular luekocytes?
neutrophils 7 days immune defense
Eosinophils unknown parisiste defense
basophil unknown inflammatory response
what is the life span and fuction of non granular luekocytes?
Monocytes 3 days immune surveillance, precursor of macrophage
B lymphocyte unkown antibody production plasma cell precursor
T lymphocyte unkown cellular immune response
How do platlets work?
also known as thrombocytes or fragments of bone marrow that pieces of cytoplasm pinched off from megakaryocytes.
1)vessel is broke
2)smooth muscle contracts and vessel constricts
3)platlets get sticky and form plug
4)prothrombin turns to thrombin so fibrinogen can form fibrin which contracts and traps erythrocytes to form a tight plug
What are the different heart valves?
Atrioventricular (triscuspid and biscuspid/mitral), and semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic).
blood pressure depends on? and is regulated by?
depends on blood volume.
four hormones antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopression) secreted by posterior pituitary makes you retain water to increase b/d
Aldosterone increases b/d by retaining Na+ and maintain blood osmolarity
Atrial natriutetic hormone from the heart an endocrine gland promotes elimination of water and Na+ to lower bp and b/d in respose to stretchinig in the atrium
Nitric oxide NO vasodiolater paracrine gland a gas that relaxes smooth muscle
Mammals birds and crocodiles hearts
four chambers 2 atrias 2 ventricles
left atrium recieves oxygenated blood from lungs and pumps it out the left ventricle to the body
while the right atrium recieves deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it out the right ventricle to the lungs
Mammals birds and crocodiles hearts
four chambers 2 atrias 2 ventricles
left atrium recieves oxygenated blood from lungs and pumps it out the left ventricle to the body
while the right atrium recieves deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it out the right ventricle to the lungs
What guards the opening b/t the atria and the ventricles? the exits of ventricles to arterial system?
two pairs of valves
1)Atrioventricluar valves (AV)
a)right - tricuspid
b)left - bicuspid or mitral
a)right - pulmoanry
b)left aortic