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204 Cards in this Set

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List the 5 viral disease categories.
1)influenza
2)Diseases caused by the herpes family
3)viral hepatitis
4)human immunodeficiency virus
5)miscellaneous viral diseases
What are noncellular biological entities?
viruses
Describe viruses.
Noncellular biological entities w/ either DNA or RNA enclosed by a protein shell and sometimes this is enclosed by an envelope.
What disease(s) is a member of the Orthomyxovirus family?
Influenza
What disease(s) is a member of the herpes family?
1)Herpes Simplex
2)Chicken pox
3)shingles
4)infectious mononucleosis
5)cytomegalovirus
What disease(s) is a member of the picornavirus family?
Hepatitis A
What disease(s) is a member of the Hepadvavirus family?
Hepatitis B
What disease(s) is a member of the Flavivirus family?
Hepatitis C
What disease has an evneloped RNA virus w/ two envelope proteins?
Influenza
What is Hemagglutinin?
an envelope protein of influenza that is responsible for attaching the flu virus to its host cells.
What is Neuraminidase?
an envelope protein of influenza who's function it is to break down and penatrate mucous.
what are the envelope proteins of influenza?
Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase (H&N proteins)
Why are the H&N proteins sometimes referred to as antigens?
b/c the immune response to influenza is in response to the H&N proteins themselves similar to antibodies being activated by antigens.
What is the combination of H&N proteins on influenza?
each is different\
What does antigenic variations of H&N mean?
there are differnt types of H&N, each designated by numbers. (ex. H3N8)
How many segments(molecules)does the RNA of influenza have?
8
describe a influenza molecule.
8 segments of RNA, each surrounded by a helical(spiraling) capsid, all of this is surrounded by an envelope with different variations of H&N proteins.
How are the segments of influenza RNA packaged?
in helical nucleocapsids.
What disease has genetic exchange b/t different strains?
influenza
What is genetic exchange b/t different strains of influenza mean?
two different stains can exchange genetic info b/t each other forming a new strain.
How do scientist determine what kind/strain of flu to include in the vaccine?
the predict what strains will be prevelant based on infected birds.
What are the symptoms and complications of influenza? (4)
RT symptoms
flu like symptoms
fever
neurological complications
What are the neurological complications of influenza?
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Reye's syndrom
What are the symptoms of Buillain-Barre Syndrom? (7)
will appear to recover from the flu, then fever suddenly returns, dizziness, seizures, disorientation, sometimes coma, may have permanent brain damage.
What are teh symptoms of Reye's Syndrom? (8)
will appear to recover from flu, then very high fever, disorientation, seizures, coma, high fatality rate, may have permanent brain damage, more sever than GB.
Is Guilliam-Barre syndrom, or Reye's syndrom more sever?
Reye's syndrom
What age groups does Guillain-Barre syndrom typically affect?
older children or yound adults.
What age group does Reye's Syndrom typically affect?
infants, children, sometimes teens (mostly young children).
Guillain-Barre syndrom is due to _______________.
immune related complications
Reye's Syndrom is due to _____________________.
immune related complications.
What diseases are associated w/ salicylate drugs such as peptobismal and asprine?
Reye's syndroms,
Describe the herpes virus.
large, DNA virus
contains 1 "S" shaped segment(molecule)
surrounded by a icosahedral capsid which is surrounded in an envelope w/ proteins.
What is a icosahedral capsid?
a capsid shell w/ 20 triangular facets.
How does the DNA of herpes replicate?
inside the nucleus of host cells which may cause the cells to become permanently infected or altered.
What virus may cause host chromosomes to be altered? How?
Herpes
by splicing the virus's DNA w/ the DNA of the host's Chromosomes.
What are the two major strains of herpes simplex?
Type I: Oral herpes
Type II: Genital herpes
What part of the body does Herpes Type I appear?
can appear on any body part, but normally on the mouth.
What part of the body does Herpes type II appear?
can appear on any body part, but normally on the genitalia.
How is Herpes Simplex Type I transmitted?
thru contact
How is Herpes Simples Type II transmitted?
sexually
Describe how Herpes Simplex works. (3)
1)fluid filled blister like lesions form at the site of infection
2)the virus travels along sensory neurons to ganglia where it remains
3)during times of stress or weakened immunity, the virus may travel along the same nuerons to reinfect the initial skin site.
What causes the pain associated w/ herpes simplex/
it infects the nerve and ganglia
What are the other complications associated w/ herpes simplex?
1)Herpes encephalitis
2)congenital herpes
3)cervical cancer
What is herpes encephalitis? What is its cause?
herpes infection of the brain
caused when herpes gets into the blood stream.
What is congenital herpes?
when a mother has active lesions and give birth to baby, baby's entire skin surface is infected.
May spread to blood stream causing herpes encephalitis.
What is the treatment for herpes simplex?
Acyclovir
what is another name for acyclovir?
Zovirax
How does acyclovir work?
it inhibits DNA replications so slows down replication of virus shortening the duration of the outbreak.
Varicella-zoster virus is the cause of what virus?
Chicken pox and shingles.
Epstein-Barr virus is the cause of what virus?
Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono)
What are the symptoms of chicken pox? (5)
1)two week incubation period
2)fussy, headache, fever, scratching, small red spots, spots
3)spots develope into fluid filled lesions.
4)infects nerves causing pain and itching
5)infects ganglia permanently
What age group does chicken pox normally affect?
children
The spots of chicken pox often follow _____________.
nerve pathways
If chicken pox gets into the throat what complications can this cause?
affixiation.
If chicken pox is reactived in an adult what is it called?
Shingles
What are the symptoms of shingles? (4)
1)begins w/ extreme pain along one nerve pathway localizing in one region
2)resh developes, red spots on one side of body
3)spots develope into fluid filled lesions
4)lesions rupture and develop into a very painful scally rash
Does chicken pox tend to reoccur? shingles?
No
Yes
What is the treatment for shingles?
large dose of Acyclovir as quickly as possible.
How do we prevent from getting chicken pox?
vaccine
if one is vaccinated for chicken pox can they get shingles
should not
Shingles is associated w/ what other syndrom? what precausions should be taken?
Reye's syndrom
do not take salicylate drugs
How is Mono transmitted?
by contact w/ contaminated saliva ie kissing or drinking after someone infected.
What are the symptoms of Mono? (6)
1)Infects the blood stream
2)lymph node swelling
3)fever and fatigue typically lasting several weeks.
4)Heterophile antibody production
5)Burkitt's Lymphoma
6)chronic fatigue syndrome
What is swelling of lymph nodes causing high levels of nonspecific (heterophile) antibodys called?
What virus causes this?
Heterophile antibody production
Mono
Describe Burkitt's Lymphoma.(3)
1)a type of lymphatic cancer
2)often associeated w/ a higher risk in African Americans
3)Often seen in AIDS pt
How long does mono stay in the system?
it is believed to be permanent.
What is the recurrent outbreaks of mono called?
Chronic fatigue syndrome.
How do we test for mono?
Monospot test
What is a serological test for heterophile antibodies called?
Monospot test
what type of blood does the monospot test use? what is a positive result?
horse blood
clumping.
What diseases are caused by the herpes family?
1)Herpes Simplex types I & II
2)Chicken pox and Shingles
3)mono
4)Cytomeglovirus(CMV)
What are the symptoms of Cytomegalovirus? (4)
1)mild symptoms in otherwise healthy pts
2)miscarriages when contracted during pregnancy
3)severe infections in AIDs pts
4)Major cause of blindness in AIDS pts
What is a major cause of blindness in AIDS pts?
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
WHat diseases are caused by viral hepatitis?
Hep A, B, C, Delta, and E
Hepatitis is an infection/inflammation of what?
liver
What other two names is Hep A known by?
Infectious Hepatitis
short-incubation hepatitis
Describe Hep A
small nonenveloped RNA virus
The Picornavirus family includes what three viruses?
Hep A, rhinovirus (common cold), and polio virus
How is Hep A transmitted?
Typical-fecal oral route via contaminiated food or water b/c virus particles are present in the stool
Minor-saliva contact, sexual contact, and arthropod
what are they symptoms of Hep A? (5)
1)2-4 wk incubation period
2)nausea, vomiting, fever
3)abdominal pain/ tenderness (especailly in upper quadrants)
4)Jaundice in many but not all cases
5)liver disfunction
What is jaundice caused by?
bile pigments
how do we test for liver disfunction?
screening for liver enzymes
What is the typical duration of Hep A?
several weeks
What determins the severity of Hep A?
mitigating factors (ie. alcoholic, over use of tylenol)
What is the treatment for Hep A? (2)
1)prolonged rest
2)Hep A immune globulin in severe cases
How is Hep A detected?
W/ Stool samples
How do we prevent from getting Hep A today?
vaccine
What is Hep A immune globulin? what are the disadvatages of this?
an injection of purified antiserum that contains antibodies to Hep A
one may get serum sickness
What other names is Hep B known as?
serum hepatitis
long-incubation hepatitis
describe a molecule of Hep B?
a nuceocapsid consisting of DNA surrounded by Hep B core antigen protein (HBcAg0, the core is surrounded by a lipoprotein envelope containing the Hep B surface antigen (HBsAg).
What is the entire structure of the Hep B molecule called?
Dane particle
How is Hep B detected?
serologically, large amount of axcess HBsAg are found in the serum so test for HBsAg.
How is Hep B transmitted?
contact w/ infected body fluids, blood, blood products, semen, vaginal secreations, urine and saliva have also been implicated.
Describe the symptoms of Hep B.(6)
1)Incubation period of 4-6 weeks
2)nausea, fever
3)dark urina & clay colored stools
4)extreme fatigue
5)abdominal tenderness
6)jaundice
What causes the clay colored stool associated w/ Hep B?
liver disfunction
What is the duration of the symptoms of hep B?
3-4 months
How long does hep B stay in body?
10% of pts remain carriers for several months, it is not known if it stays in the body the rest of life.
What is the treatment for Hep B?
1)very prolonged rest
2)Hep B immune globulin
How do we prevent from getting Hep B?
vaccine
What were the first Hep B vaccine made from?
chicken embryos
How do we make Hep B vaccines today?
recombint DNA technology
Describe the pocess of getting a vaccine for Hep B.
a series of 3 vaccines, after these the titer(antibody level) is checked to see if the vaccine was effective.
What is another name for Hep C?
NANB serum Hepatitis
Describe a Hep C molecule.
enveloped virus
Decribe the symptoms of Hep C.
similar to Hep B but milder, often w/ subclinical symptoms(no symptoms) but w/ chronic liver damage.
How is Hep C transmitted?
similar to Hep B, contact w/ bodily fluids
How is Hep C tested?
it is recommended that you get tested for Hep C often since there are no symptoms.
Describe Delta Hepatitis.
a small defective RNA virus that requires coinfection w/ hep B to replicate.
How is delta Hep xmitted?
similar to hep B, bodily fluids
What are the symptoms of Delta Hep?
similar to Hep B but more severe.
What is another name for Hep E?
NANB infectious hep
Describe the Hep E molecule.
a small nonevneloped RNA virus
What virus is of the calcivirus family?
Hep E
How is Hep E xmitted?
similar to Hep A, fecal oral route, saliva, sexual, srthropods
What are the symptoms of hep E?
similar to hep A, 2-4 wk incubation, nausea, vomiting, fever, adbominal pain, jaundice in some liver disfunction
describe a Human Immunodeficiency virus molecule.
a retrovirus, enveloped RNA virus that replicated through a DNA intermediate.
How is the DNA intermediate synthesized in HIV?
by revers transcription meaning HIV is an enzyme that makes a DNA molecule using and RNA template.
How does the DNA intermediate affect the body?
it is spliced into the host chromosomes making the infection permanent. so every time the cells replicate the virus is replicated w/it.
What type of cells are host(target) cells for HIV?
CD4+ cells
What is CD4?
a protein found on certian cells in the body,
What two cells in the human body have the CD4 protiens on them?
Helper T cells and Macrophages.
What is the function of helper T lymphocytes in the body?
they are requirede for every strong specific immune response.
How does damage to the helper T cells affect the body?
it cripples the immune system.
How is HIV transmitted/
Contact w/ infected body fluids, may be xmitted thru saliva, feces and urine.
Not food, water, insects or airborne.
What other two names is HIV known as?
HTLV-III and LAV
What is the definition of AIDS?
catastrophic immune system failure caused by HIV
What are the CDC Case surveillance definition for AIDS based on?
Clinical symptoms
Helper T-4 lymphocyte count
Describe catagory A of AIDS
1)Asymptomatic HIV infection
2)persistant Generalized Lymphadenopathy
3)acute HIV infection
Describe Catagory B of AIDS
Symtomatic HIV infection w/ constitutive illness(weight loss, persistent fever, diarrhea) and certain opportunistic infections
Describe catagory C of AIDS
Symptomatic HIV infection w/ opportunistic infections listed in the CDC surveillance case definitions
Describe catagory 1 of AIDS
t4 count greater than 400 per microliter of blood
Describe catagory 2 of AIDS
t4 count 200-400 per microliter of blood
Describe Catagory 3 of AIDS
t4 count less then 200 per microliter of blood
What catagory meets the CDC survaeillance definition to be included among the AIDS cases?
C AND 3
What is an acute infection associated w/ HIV? When does it normally show up?
fever, lymph node swelling, aches, fatigue, flu-like and mono-like symptoms.
w/in 2 weeks of exposure
What is persistent gereralized Lymphadenopahty?
lymph node swelling for greater than 6 months in two or more body areas excluding the groin area.
What is constitutive illness
weight loss, persistent fever, diarrhea/
What cancers are associated w/ HIV?
Kaposi's sarcoma - skin cancer
Certain lymphomas
What are some bacterial secondary infection associated w/ hiv?
Mycobaterium(TB), listeria, salmonella, mycoplasma
What are som fungal secondary infections associated w/ hiv?
Candida (thrush)
What are some protozan secondary infections associated w/ HIV?
Toxoplasma gondii
cryptosporidium
pneumocystis carinii
What are some viral secondary infections associated with hiv?
Herpes simplex
cytomegalovirus
What are the treatments for HIV?
inhibitors of DNA replication
protease inhibitors
What do pneumotrophic viruses infect?
list 3 examples.
respiratory tract
Rhinovirus-common cold
Adenovirus-sever colds and viral menigitis
Respiratory Syncytial virus-sever colds and pneumonia
What do dermotrophic viruses infect?
list 5 examples.
skin
measels-fever and rash
rubella-(german measles)fever and rash
mumps-lymph swelling in neck and rash
fifth disease-similar to measles
papilloma-warts
What do viscerotrophic viruses infect?
list 3 examples
internal organs
enterovirus-common stomach virus and intestinal infections
Rotavirus- more sever intestinal virus
Norwalk virus-most sever intestinal virus
What do Neurotrophic viruses infect?
list 4 examples
nervous system
poliomyelitis-polio
rabies
arbovirus-tropical fever, infects brain, xmitted by insects
arenavirus-tropical fever, may develope into meningitis, xmitted b/t humans
What are prion disease?
list 4 examples
small infectious particles that contain only protein, no nucleic acid
bovine sppongiform encephalopathy - mad cow
Scrapie- disorientation in sheep
Creutzfelt-jakob syndrom-related to eating brains
Kuru-eating raw human flesh
what are the 3 fungal disease?
Candidiasis
Dermatomycoses
respiratory fungal infections
What kind of cells are fungi?
eukaryotic cells
list the structures in fungi cell walls
chitin and cellulose
How do fungi get nutrition?
they have a heterotrophic metabolism meaning they break down organic nutrients
they are decomposers, some are parasitic(pathogenic)
What are the two groups fungi are broken down into/
1)mold and fleshy fungi
2)yeast
What are hyphae?
cells that are arranged in filaments end to end
What kind of fungi's cellular structure in hyphae that will grow to cover the available median?
mold
What kind of fungi's cellular structure in randomly tangeled hyphae?
mushrooms
what is septate hyphae
the nuclei are separated by cell walls
what is nonseptate hyphae?
the nuclei are not seperated by cell walls
What is a mycelium?
a mass of hyphae
what are single celled fungi?
yeast
what are dimorphic fungi
can grow as either a yeast or hyphae dependin gon its growth contiditons.
How are fungi classified?
by reproductive structures
describe oomycetes
a group of fungi also known as water molds
have motile secual spores
typically live in moist enviro and havef flagella
Discribe Zygomycetes
a group of fungi
unenclosed zygospores pruduced at ends of hyphae
Describe Ascomycetes
a group of fungi
ascospores are enclosed in asci(sac like structure) at the ends of hyphae or some yeast
Describe Basidiomycetes
a group of fungi
basidiospores are produced on a club-shaped structure called a basidium
Describe Deuteromycetes
a group of fungi
imperfect fungi
no sexual stafe
many parasitic fungi fall into this class
What class of fungi are mushrooms?
basidiomycetes
what class of fungi are candida?
Deuteromycetes
What class of fungi are potato blight (phytophthora)
oomycetes
What class of fungi is black bread mold (rhizopus)
zygomycetes
What class of fungi is epidermaphyton?
Deuteromycetes
What class of fungi is penicillium
Ascomycetes
WHat group of fungi is saccharomyces? (bakers yeast)
ascomycetes
What group of fungi is cryptococcus?
Basidiomycetes
What is the cause of Candidiasis?
candida albicans
describe candidiasis
dimorphic fungus of the class deuteromycetes
grows as yeast or pseudeohyphae(few hyphae)
opportunistic infection common
How is Candidiasis transmitted?
contact, part of normal flora
what is the treatment for Candidiasis?
antifungal drugs
What is Dermatoycoses?
a fungal infeciton of the skin, grow on hair, skin and nails
What is the cause of Dermatomycoses?
several genera of dermatophytic fungi including: Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermaphyton
How is Dermatomycoses transmitted?
contact w/ infected persons or animals
What does a tinae infection mean?
a red, scaly, blister like lesion, ofetn a raised red ring, ring worm associated w/ dermatomycoses
What is Tinae pedis?
a dermatomycoses infection of the feet, athletes foot
What is Tinae corporis?
a dermatomycoses infection any place on the body
What is tinae capitis/
a dermatomycoses infection of the forehead or facial region
What is Tinae favosa
a dermatomycoses infection of the scalp
What is Tinae barbae
a dermatomycoses infection of the beard
What is tinae cruris
a dermatomycoses infection of the groin area jock itch
What is tinae unguinum?
a dermatomycoses infection of the nails
Describe Cryptococcosis
a respiratory fungal infection
1)caused by Cryptococcus neoformans
2)a yeast of class Basidiomycetes
3)produces gelatinous capsules that resist phagocytosis
Where is Cryptococcosis found? how is it xmitted?
soil contamintated w/ bird droppings.
airborne
What are the symptoms of Cryptococcosis?
respiratory tract infection and pneumonia type infections
occasional systemic infection involving breain and meninges.
What causes Histoplasmosis?
Histoplasma capsulatum
What class of fungi is histoplasmosis
an ascomycete
how is Histoplasmosis xmitted?
airborne, inhalation of spores in contaminted soil, associated with chicken and bat droppings
What are the symptoms of Histoplasmosis
respiratiory tract symptoms
fever, headache, cough, chest pain, sever
list the respiratory tract infections caused by fungi.
Cryptococcosis
Histoplasmosis
Blastomycosis
What causes Blastomycosis?
Blastomyces dermatitidis
What class of fungi is Blastomycosis?
Ascomycete
How is Blastomycosis xmitted/
1)associated w/ dusty soil and bird droppings, skin xmittion
2)Airborne via inhalation of spores
What are they symptoms of Blastomycosis transmitted thru skin
raised, wart like lesions
What are the symptoms of blastomycosis transmitted airborne?
Respiratory tract symptoms, occasional internal infections w/ high fatality rate
What are the protazoan dieases?
1)Amebiasis
2)Primary Amebic meningoencephalitis
3)Giardiasis
4)Trichomoniasis
5)Balantidiasis
6)Toxoplamosis
7)Malaria
8)Crytosporidiosis
9)pneumocystosis