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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
head region
neck region
chest region
arm region
lower back region
armpit region
front direction
back direction
front direction (animals)
back direction (animals)
towards the head
towards the tail
towards the center
away from the center
towards attached base
away from attached base
near the surface
farther from the surface
transverse plane
divides the body into superior and inferior sections (horizontal plane)
frontal (coronal) plane
divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
divides the body into right and left sections
epithelial tissue
sheets of tightly packed cells; cover the exterior of the body, line cavities, passageways, etc.

primary function is physical protection, absorption & excretion
apical surface
exposed surface of epithelial tissue
basal lamina
the basement membrane that epithelial tissue is bound to
simple epithelium
single layer of cells (less protection)
stratified epithelium
multiple layers of cells (more protection)
simple squamous epithelium
broad, flat, single layered
for absorption & diffusion
lines the peritoneal cavity
stratified squamous epithelium
squamous at apical layer
high stress areas (tongue, etc.)
simple cuboidal epithelium
square with round nucleus in center, provides limited protection, good for secretion & absorption, found in glands
stratified cuboidal epithelium
rare, offers protection, secretion, & absorption, found in ducts of sweat & mammary glands
transitional epithelium
stretches and recoils (stomach and bladder)
simple columnar
rectangular, tall, high secretion & absorption, microvilli at surface, covers intestinal & lining
pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelium
appears stratified but has cilli not microvilli (longer hairs), found in nasal cavity, trachea, etc.
stratified columnar epithelium
rare, has elongated nuclei, more layers for protection, found in urethra, pharynx & salivary glands
connective tissue functions
support, fluid transport, organ protection, surround and connect other tissues, energy storage (lipids), defense from microorganisms
connective tissue proper
2 types (loose and dense)
areolar connective tissue
a loose connective tissue, distorts & returns, binds epithelium to underlying tissue (long strand-like)
adipose connective tissue
a loose connective tissue, offers padding, insulation, shock absorption (marshmallow)
reticluar connective tissue
a loose connective tissue, 3-dimensional reticular fibers for organ support, stabilization of vessels & nerves
dense connective tissue
fibrous tissues, densely packed collagen fibers for strength, 2 types are tendons and ligaments
attach muscle to bone, dense connective tissue
tendonous sheet (dense connective tissue), attaches broad flat muscle to another muscle or bone
connect bone to bone, dense connective tissue
fluid connective tissue
blood and lymph (cells & proteins)
supporting connective tissue
cartilage or bone
cartilage cells
type of cartilage that offers stiff, flexible support, reduces friction, covers bones & sinovial joints (ribs, sternum)
type of cartilage, maleable support, tolerates distortion (oracle-ear)
type of cartilage, prevents bone to bone contact, limits movement (inbetween vertebrae, miniscus)
osseous tissue
bone cells
smooth muscle tissue
movement is involuntary, non-striated, lines walls of digestive system, etc.
skeletal muscle
contraction is voluntary, striated filament in bundles, multinucleated
cardiac muscle
contraction is involuntary, found only in the heart, short branched
type of neural tissue, conduct electrical impulses, looks like it has a tail
type of neural tissue, supplies nutrients to neruons, no tail
cutaneous membrane
one of the 2 major components of the integumentary system, includes the epidermis and dermis (underlying connective tissue, loose areolar tissue)
accessory structures
one of the 2 major components of the integumentary system, hair nails & glands
6 functions of the integumentary system
excretion of salt, water, & waste
maintenance of body temperature
synthesis of vitamin D3
storage of lipids
detects and relays stimuli
basal lamina
basement membrane, site of attachment for the epithelium
stratum germinativum
deepest layer of the epidermis, separates it from areolar, increases surface area for strength, contains stem cells
stratum spinosum
2nd deepest layer of epidermis, cells migrate from the stratum germinativum, contains langerhans cells for the immune system
stratum granulosum
3rd deepest layer of epidermis, cells begin to dehydrate and die, grainy
stratum lucidum
2nd most superficial layer of epidermis, flat dense & keratin filled, only found in the palms and balls of the feet
stratum corneum
most superficial layer of epidermis, 15-30 layers of keratinized, protective skin
connective tissue just under the epidermis
papillary layer
top layer of dermis, nipple-like stuff under the epidermis, areolar tissue, capillaries, sensular neurons
reticular layer
bottom layer of dermis (from paillary layer to fat), dense irregular connective tissue, collagen fibers, contains accessory organs
lamellated (pacinian) corpuscle
watermelon thing, receptor sensitive to deep pressure (think pressure=pacinian)
tactile (meissner's) corpuscle
cranberry thing, in papillary layer, sensitive to light and touch
merocrine sweat gland
small white, everywhere, aid in thermoregulation (ecrine glands)
apocrine sweat gland
large green, stinky gland, armpits and pubic area, produces BO (think green=stinky)
sebaceous gland
produces oil to protect hair from bacteria (purple mushroom thing)
if it's asking about a hair layer it is the ____ if it's asking about an area/section it's the ____
cuticle, shaft
arrector pili muscle
muscle attached to the hair follice, produces goosebumps
hair root
anchors hair into skin
hair shaft
hair sticking out of the skin
hair bulb
part of the follicle, bulge at the bottom
hair papilla
nerves & capillaries, connective tissue
connective tissue sheath
purple, surrounds hair follicle
glassy membrane
sky blue, inside connective tissue sheath, does not reach skin surface
external root sheath
yellow, inside glassy membrane, does not reach skin surface
internal root sheath
light brown, inside external root sheath, does not reach skin surface
cuticle of hair
shiny part, surface of hair, outside of skin
cortex of hair
dark brown, inside of cuticle
medulla of hair
white (core), inside cortex
subcutaneous layer
not part of the integumentary system, areolar and adipose tissue that helps support the integumentary system
epidermis layers from exposed to deep
stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum germinativum
basal lamina