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100 Cards in this Set

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What are characteristics of protozoa?
unicellular eukaryotes, no cell wall, most are chemoheterotroph, live in environment with water, free living or parasites, important in food chains, some cause diseases
What is the shape and size of protozoa?
various shapes; 10 micrometers to 2 mm
What are the 2 forms of protozoa?
trophozoite and cyst
What is the vegetative form of protozoa?
trophozoite
What is the resting form of protozoa?
cyst
What form of protozoa feeds and grows?
trophozoite
What is an example of protozoa?
Balantidium coli
What is produced by some protozoa to survive bad environment and outside host?
cyst
What does the cyst have?
a protective covering outside the cell
What does a cyst do?
help the protozoa survive outside the host
Which is more resistant: endospore or cyst?
endospore
What is going form a trophozoite to a cyst?
encystment
What is going from a cyst to a trophozoite?
excystment
What is a tough protective covering of the protozoa?
pellicle
What is the mouth like structure of protozoa?
cytostome
Where does food enter the protozoa?
cytostome
What is an opening to eliminate wastes?
anal pore
What is the contractile vacuole?
water pump that keeps the cell from bursting in fresh water environment
What does food do?
food inside the food vacuole is digested and exits through the anal pore
What are most protozoa?
chemoheterotroph
What is the protozoa that is not chemoheterotroph?
Euglena
What can Euglena do?
can grow in light as photoautotroph and in dark chemoheterotroph
What are the ways that nutrients can be taken in?
transports nutrients across membrane, eat food through cytostome, eat food by phagocytosis
How are foods digested?
in vacuoles
How are wastes eliminated?
through membrane or anal pore
What are the 3 ways protozoa can reproduce asexual reproduction?
fission, budding, schizogony (multiple fission)
What are yielded from schizogeny?
merozoites
What does one cell in schizogeny yield?
multiple nucleus
What are some ways protozoa can sexually reproduce?
produce gametes and they fuse to form a zygote
What is an example of a protozoa that has sexual reproduction?
Plasmodium
What protozoa reproduce by conjugation?
ciliates
What occurs in conjugation?
cells fuse, exchange micronucleus (haploid) and separate and then macro and micro nucleus fuse and become a diploid cell
What are modern protozoa based on?
r-RNA sequence
What protozoa classification has no mitochondria, no golgi bodies, and no peroxisome?
archaezoa
What protozoa classification has no mitochondria but has pseudopods?
amoeba
What protozoa classification has membrane bound alveoli?
alveolates
What has disc shaped cristae in mitochondria?
euglenozoa
How do you divide the parasites into 4 groups?
ciliate, amoeba, flagellates, apicomplexans
What have cilia outside?
ciliates
What has pseudopods?
amoeba
What use flagella to move?
flagellates
What is an obligate intracellular parasite that doesn't move in mature form, complex lifestyle?
apicomplexans
What do cilia do?
propel the cell in water and bring food to cytostome
What occurs with food in ciliates?
food enters cytostome into cytopharynx and into food vacuoles
How do wastes leave cilia?
anal pore
What is a ciliate that causes dysentery?
Balantidium coli
What does B. coli cause?
dysentery
How is B. coli spread?
fecal oral route
What is the shape of the cyst?
sphere
What is the shape of the trophozoite?
pointed
What move by pseudopods?
amoeba
How do amoeba engulf food?
by phagocytosis
How do amoeba reproduce?
binary fission
What do many amoeba do?
produce cysts
What have no defined shape?
amoeba
What are 3 examples of amoeba?
Entamoeba histolytica, Naegleria, Acanthamoeba
What causes amoebic dysentery?
Entamoeba histolytica
What is transmitted by fecal oral route?
Entamoeba histolytica
What causes bacillary dysentery?
shigella
How many nuclei are in the Entamoeba histolytica cyst?
4 nuclei
What is amoebic meningoencephalitis?
Naegleria
What is amoebic encephalitis?
Acanthamoeba
Where do Naegleria and Acanthamoeba live?
free living in water and moist soil
Where does Naegleria enter?
host through the nose (while swimming)
Where does Acanthamoeba enter?
host through cuts on skin, nose (while swimming) and conjunctiva
Where can Naegleria and Acanthamoeba go?
to the brain
What can Acanthamoeba cause if enters eyes?
conjunctiva dysfunction
How do flagellates move?
by flapping flagella
What are 3 examples of flagellates?
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis
What does Trypanosoma brucei gambiense cause?
African sleeping disease
What causes giardiosis?
Giardia lamblia
What does Trichomonas vaginalis cause?
STD
Where does Giardia lamblia live?
intestine
How is Trypanosoma brucei gambiense transmitted?
by tsetse fly
What happens with African sleeping sickness?
injected into blood, invade CNS, cause mental deterioration

cause coma and death
What does trypanosoma have?
undulating membrane that attaches flagella to cell: can help identify organism based on where it starts
What is an intestinal infection caused by ingestion of cyst in water?
giardiosis caused by giardia lamblia: transmitted by fecal oral route
How does Giardia lamblia exit?
in feces
What can giardiosis cause?
diarrhea for 3 months
What causes an STD in male and female?
Trichomonas vaginalis
What has an undulating membrane and no cyst?
Trichomonas vaginalis
Does Trichomonas vaginalis need to survive outside host?
no, it is spread by sexual contact
What are apicomplexans also called?
sporozoa
What have a complex lifestyle?
apicomplexans: asexual and sexual
What form of apicomplexans is not motile?
mature form
What is apicomplexans?
obligate intracellular parasite
What are 3 forms of apicomplexans?
Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum
What does Plasmodium cause?
malaria
What does Toxoplasma gondii cause?
toxoplasmosis
What does Cryptosporidium parvum cause?
cryptosporidiosis
What occurs with plasmodium?
mosquito injects sporozoite into human blood and goes to liver to invade, causes schizogony to make merozoites, go to blood and enter RBC and grow into ring; schizogony has more merozoites that burst RBC and exit and find new RBC and start over or turn to gamete to enter and form in mosquito and make zygote, make more sporozoites to inject another host
What is a spindle shaped tropozoite?
sporozoite
What harbors the sexual stage of parasite?
definitive host
What harbors the asexual stage of parasite?
intermediate host
What is the definitive host in toxoplasma gondii?
cat
What occurs in toxoplasma gondii?
cat produces oocyst in feces, feces ingested by another animal/human, grows into trophozoite and turns into bradyzoite
What is an oocyst?
2 cells each grow into its own
What is a sporozoite?
tachyzoite
What is dangerous for fetus?
toxoplasma gondii, pregnant women not handle cat litter
What is in chicken manure?
crytosporidiosis