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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a positive result for starch hydrolysis
clear zone- amylase production
negative result for starch hydrolysis
no clear zone- no amylase
What is a positive result for lipid hydrolysis
clear zone- lipase present
What is a positive result for casein hydrolysis
clear zone- makes caseinase
How long do you incubate for gelatin hydrolysis
48 h at 37C
What is a positive result for gelatin hydrolysis
liquid after 48 hr= has gelatinase

liquid after 5 days= slow gelatinase production
What does is mean if broth is red for sugar fermentation?
sugar is not fermented
What does it mean if broth turns yellow for sugar fermentation
sugar broken down and made acid
What does it mean if you have yellow broth and a gas bubble for sugar fermentation test
sugar broken down into acid and gas
What 3 sugars are in TSI slant
glucose, lactose, sucrose
What is the pH indicator in TSI slant
phenol red
What does red in phenol red mean?
What does yellow in phenol red mean
What are teh carbs in TSI slant
0.1% glu
1% lac
1% suc
What occurs if the carb in TSI is fermented or oxidized
makes acid (yellow) or acid and gas (yellow and broken agar)
What are proteins broken down into
basic products
What color are basic products in TSI slant
HOw is FeSO4 made in TSI
H2S+FeSO4--> FeS (black ppt)
Can H2S split agar or produce a gas bubble in liquid?
no it is soluble
What does it mean if the TSI slant has a red slant
negative: cannot ferment sugars: basic products


mos used up all glu within a day and then the mos uses protein (acid turns basic when protein degraded)
What if TSI goes from a yellow slant to red slant
mos used up all glu within day and then it started using protein
What does a yellow TSI slant mean
uses glu as well as lactose/sucrose/both and makes acid
Protein degradation
What does it mean if TSI deep is red
all sugars negative for fermentation
What does it mean if TSI deep is yellow
glucose positive, others negative (glu not used up within 2 days)
What does it mean if TSI deep is yellow
glucose positive and lactose/sucrose/or both positive
all negative: no sugar fermentation
R/Y (or yellow tip)TSI
Glu +
Lac and Suc -
Lac/Suc/or both +
Agar split TSI
gas production
Black ppt TSI
H2S production
What are the 4 tests of IMViC?
indole, methyl red, voges proskauer, citrate
What is useful to differentiate species in Enterobacteriaceae family?
What is used for indole test
tryptone broth at 37C for 48h
What reagant is added in indole test
Kovac's reagant
What does the indole test look for
What does tryptophonase break tryptphane into?
indole and pyr and ammonia
What is a methyl red testing?
for glucose: if +, broken down into acid giving a pH of below 4.2 and turning methyl red into a red color
What is a positive methyl red
red color: acidic: pH below 4.2
What is a negative methyl red
yellow: pH above 4.2
What is VP testing for
What is the reaction for VP test
Glu--> acid -->2,3 butanediol <--> acetylmethylcarbinol
What does acetyl methanol and alpha naphthol do when combined with 40% KOH?
make diacetyl and a red compound
What is used to test citrate utilization
simmon citrate agar slant: stab and streak
What does citratase do
break down citrate
What is the pH indicator for urease test
phenol red
What is a positive urease result?
alkaline (red)
What is the pH indicator in litmus milk
What is acid in litmus
neutral in litmus
basic in litmus
What is reduced litmus
no color
Oxidized litmus
depends on pH color
What is milk used for
to detect if milk/carb was fermented into acid
What will litmus milk be if fermented the milk
pink with or without coagulation
What will gas do to litmus milk curd
break it
What occurs in litmus milk if casein is degraded
turns alkaline lavender or if completely degraded turns clear (peptonization)
WHat does casein and renin make
calcium paracasein (rennet curd)
What does it mean if nitrate reduction test turns red
it has nitrate reductase to reduce nitrate and make NO2
HOw do you detect if nitrate reduction test made NO2?
add sulfanilic acid and alpha naphthylamine and they make a red compound
What do you do if there is no color change in nitrate test
add zinc
What do you do if nitrate test turns red after zince
NO3 is not reduced by the mos
NO3+Zn--> NO2
What do you do if there is no color change after zinc
NO3-->NO2-->NH3 or NO3-->N2
What does superoxide dismutase do to free radicals
2 O2 + 2H --> H2O2 + O2
What does peroxidase do
H2O2 + 2H --> 2H2O
What does catalase do
2H2O2 --> 2 H2O + O2
Can anaerboes make superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, or catalase
What can aerotolerants do
maybe produce one but not other
What can streptococcus do
produce superoxide dismutase but not catalase
What is a catalase test
immerse the mos in 3% H2O2 --> yields bubbles if positive
What is used by some microbes to oxidize some reduced cytochrome by O2 (taking electrons from reduced cytochrome and passing to O2)
cytochrome oxidase
What will reduced cytochrome become with oxidase?
oxidized cytochrome
What is a positive oxidase result
purple color (oxidized)
What mos is oxidase positive?
pseudomonas, neisseria
What mos is oxidase negative
What is major sugar in litmus milk
what is major protein in litmus milk
Ingredients of litmus milk
litmus and milk
function of litmus
pH indicator and redox indicator