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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are macronutrients, and which elements fall into this group?
Macronutrients make up more than .1% dry weight of a plant. CHOPKNSCaFeMg is how you should remember it
what are micronutrients, and which elements fall into this group?
micronutrients make up less that .1% dry weight of a plant. Cl, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Cu, Ni, Mo (goood luck with that)
What elements show deficiency symptoms in the lower parts of a plant?
N, K, Mg++
Called Mobile Elements
What elements show deficiency symptoms in the upper part of a plant?
Ca++, Na++, Cu++
Called Immobile Elements
(stuck in cell wall)
What is the largest cause of good soil becoming un-nutritious?
increase in acidity, which causes too many H+ in the soil. H+ takes place of the ++ cations in absorbed soil
Where does nutrient uptake occur in roots?
"zone of maturation" - area just above growing root tip (where root hairs are)
How do roots make ion uptake favorable? What routes are available for ions?
Proton pumps on PM make outside PM (+) and inside (-). Anions (-) come across via co-transporters. Cations (+) go through channels due to hyper-polarization.
What helps provide P and N to plants?
Mycorrhizal Fungi
undifferentiated tissue is called
cambium is
undifferentiated tissue
forms sheaths in vascular tissue
grows girthways
what are the undifferentiated cells in roots called?
what is pericycle?
undifferentiated cells in roots
makes branched roots
the area outside of a PM
area inside of the plasma membrane
organ system names
root system
shoot system
plant organs
plant tissue systems
plant tissues
cell types
epidermal cells
ground cells
key parts of a plant
cell wall
connects adjacent cells through semi permeable membranes (only water allowed through)
What is special about the molecules plants use?
they synthesize all of them
nucleotides, amino acids, oils, cofactors, vitamins, minerals, hormones, etc
immobile elements symptoms
iron, calcium, sodium, copper
tied up in old leaves, new leaves show the damage
mobile element symptoms
Nitrogen, potassium, manganese
able to move to new growth areas easily, so older leaves show damage
why is acidic soil bad?
It means that there are alot of H+ in the soil, so they take the place of (+) cations on (-) charged soil.
what keeps too many ions from entering the roots?
casparian strip - waxy stopping points. gets in the way of apoplast transport
nerst equation
log (Ko/Ki)
needs to be less than -116mV for potassium to be pulled in
how are ions generally pulled into the symplast?
proton pump pushes H+ to outside of cell
outside of cell is acidic
k+ comes in through potential
ions like Cl- come in through cotransporters (with H+)
roots and fungi system
roots surrounded by myrorrhizae fungi. they fix nitrogen and phosphorus for plants, get sucrose in return
how to fungi fix nitrogen?
takes N2 from the air and turns it into 2NH3 + H2 using nitrogenase
what inhibits nitrogenase?
oxygen competitively inhibits
steps of rhyzobia going into roots
root hairs release flavenoid - attracts certain rhyzobia
bacteria release nod factors in response
root hairs envaginate
infection thread gos to cortex
swells and bursts cortex
tumor is formed
how to stop O2 from interfering with nitrogenase?
plants send down leghimoglobin to bind to O2 - sent to ETC
long and tall plants
happens when there is lack of red light
too much far red light
Pfr is transformed
germination steps for seeds
abscisic acid must be degraded/washed away
imbibition - placed in h2o
Gibberellian diffuses to aleurone
GA interacts w/ aleurone -> makes transcription for growth start
some require red light to start
what photoreceptor starts germination?
phytochrome red is hit and turns into phytochrome far red, which causes germination
What photoreceptor can stop germination?
when photoreceptor far red is hit, changes to photoreceptor red and stops germination
how does auxin move through a plant?
moves from apical meristem down through the plant via parenchyma cells
what photoreceptor inhibits stem growth?
cryptochrome (blue light receptor)
what causes leaves to move up during the day and down during the night?
pulvinus - bottom swells during day to lift leave, top swells during night to droop leave
bundle sheathes favor which type of photosynthesis?
they favor photosynthesis 1 because it does not create O2, which would interfere with RUBISCO
Crassulan acid metabolism
at night malate pumped into vacuoles, so CO2 defficient -> makes stomates open and take up CO2
during day malate is released from vacuoles, so [CO2] is high and stomates close
primary plant defenses
cuticle wax
thorns and spines
secondary metabolites (THC, nicotine)
how is the hypersensitive response initiated?
pathogen AVR product matches up with plant R product
what happens when hypersensitive response is triggered?
NO, reactive oxygen, and superoxide
host cell undergoes apoptosis
signals with slicylic acid to make proteinase inhibitors
what happens when a cell is damaged by a herbivore?
membrane depolarization occurs
systemin can be created
-jasmonic acid can be created
*repels herbivores with smell
*can signal other closeby plants to defend themselves
*creates proteinase
short day plants are inhibited by what?
red light, if introduced during the middle of the night, stops growth of flowers