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94 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What % of american diet is carb:
50-60
What % of american diet is protein:
11-14
What % of american diet is lipids:
30-40
Another name for tooth decay: (cavity)
Dental Caries
bacteria in the mouth feed on:
plaque
bacteria in mouth secrete:
enzymes and acids
diets high in ______ promote tooth decay
carbs
exposed tooth above gum line is covered by:
enamel
fold of mouth lining that attatches bottom of tongue to the floor of the mouth by the:
Frenulum
Saliva is a type of what kind of gland;
Exocrine
Saliva contains a antibacterial agent called:
lysozyme
Enzyme in saliva that breaks down complex carbs:
Salivary amaylase
Salivary amylase breaks down glycogen and startch to mostly:
maltose
maltose consists of:
2 glucose molecules bonded together
Saliva mixes with food to form a:
Bolus
wave like contractions in the esophogus stomach and intestines:
Peristalsis
What effect occurs to secrete saliva:
Parasympathetic
What mediates the parasympatheic effect:
Ach
What effect stimulates all digestive processes:
Parasympathetic
4 layered wall in the esophagus stomach and intestine include:
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa
Mucosa in the esophagus is made up of:
stratified squamous and contain goblet cells
Mucosa in the stomach and intestine is made up of:
simple columnar
Layer rich in blood and lymph vessles:
Sub mucosa
Smooth muscle layer where peristalsis beings:
Muscularis
Layer that covers the GI tract and keeps the surfaces wet and slippery
Serosa
sphincter muscle where esophagus meets stomach:
Gastroesophogeal sphincter muscle
Primary function of stomach:
Mix food with gastric juice to produce chyme
Powerful parastolcic contractions of the stomach that mix the food with gastic juice:
Mixing waves
sphincter muscle at the end of the stomach:
Pyloric sphincter muscle
Pyloric sphincter opens when:
Chyme forms
4 Gastric Glands include:
Mucus
Parietal
Chief Cells
Enterendocrine Cells
Cells that lubricate the stomach and protects the stomach from the acidic gastric juice
Mucus
Cells that secrete Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic:
Parietal
this acid sterilizes food:
Hydrochloric acid
Cells that secrete an inactive enzyme (pepsinogen)
Chief Cells
pepsinogen is secreted by:
cheif cells
Pepsinogen is converted to pepsin when it comes in contact with:
Hydrochloric Acid
Enzyme that breaks down proteins:
Pepsin
carbohydrate digestion begins:
in the mouth
(salivary glands)
Protein digestion beings:
in the stomach
(pepsin)
Enteroendocrine cells secrete:
gastrin
Gastrin is secreted into:
the blood stream
What stimulates parietal and chief cells:
Gastrin
3 parts of the small intestine:
Duadinum
Jujunum
Illium
Most of digestion and absorption occurs in :
Small intestine
Duodenum recieves:
Bile from Liver
Pancreatic Juice from Pancrease
Chyme from Stomach
Folds in small intestine: (2)
Villus
Microvilli
large folds of the mucosa
villus
Microscopic projection of plasma membranes of simple columnar that line lumen do not wave
Microvilli
Carb digestion occurs in:
Small intestine
Enzyme in small intestine that breaks down glycogen and starch to maltose
Pancreatic Amylase
Breaking down of maltose to 2 glucose
Maltase
Splits sucrose to glucose and fructose
Sucrase
Splits lactose to glucose and galactose:
Lactase
Lactose intollerant: lactose remains where:
Intestine
Intestinal enzyme that breaks down protein
Intestinal Protease
Enzyme secreted by intestinal cells that convert trypsinogen from pancrease to tripsin (powerful protease)
Enterokinase
major site of lipid digestion:
Small Intestine
Enzyme that breaks down lipids:
Pancreatic Lipase
Lipids are broken down to:
2 fatty acids and monoglyceride
The smooth ER of epitheal cells that line the intestine contain enzymes that recombine the FA +monoglyceride to triglycerids
Chyomicrons
Cells of the small intestine that secrete CCK and Secretin
Enteroendocrine Cells
Major stimulus for release of both hormones is:
movement of chyme into small intestine
Stimulates smooth muscle in wall of gall bladder to push bile out of ducts:
CCK
when apenix ruptures and bactera leads into abdominal cavity
Apendicitis
2 anus muscles
Internal Anal Spincter muscle
External Anal Sphincter muscle
which is skeletal muscle that holds feces
External anal sphincter muscle
Major function of large intestine:
Water Absorbtion
Intestinal Bacteria (symboitic)
Testing of H2O for e.coli
Coliform Count
Dual function of pancrease:
Endocrine(2)
Digestive
Endocrine function of pancreas:
Regulate blood sugar levels
(glucagon insulin)
Islet Cells
What cells secrete pancreatic juice:
Acinar Cells
Pancreatic enzyme that breaks down polysaccharides:
Pancreatic Amylase
Pancreatic enzyme that aids in triglicerids
Pancreatic Lipase
Inactive enzyme in Pancreas that is convertered in the intestine by enterokinase:
Trypsinogen
Tripsinogen converts to
Tripsin (protease)
What makes pancreatic juice alkaline
Sodium Bicarbonate
essential for absorbtion of fat soluable vitamins:
Bile salts
breaking of fat globules into tiny droplets
Emulsification
Most of carbs in body is strored in:
Skeletal muscle cells (glycogen)
Synthesis of glycogen from glucose
Glycogensis (liver)
Glycogenesis occurs when:
you're digesting a mean
Glycogenesis is stimulated by:
Insulin
Insulin stimulates glycogensis which will couple:
glucose to glycogen
breaking down of glycogen to glucose:
Glycogenolysis
Formation of non carb to glucose
Glyconeogenesis
aa lose NH3 become glucose
Glyconeogenesis is promoted by:
Cortisol and glucagon
Urea formation is made by:
liver
aa's losing NH3 is known as
deamination
Inflammation of liver:
Hepatitis
Chroninc long term liver disease
Cerrhosis
Gallstones are made by:
cholesterol and bile
Selfinduced starvation:
Anorexia
Bing-purge syndrome:
Bulemia