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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Selection Differential
S = mean of selected parents - mean of the population [DIFFERENCE]
Selection Response
R = mean of offspring (from selected parents) - mean of the population [GAIN]
Heritability
proportion of genetic variance to total variance.
Genome
the full set of genes an organism contains.
Mutation
any change in the genetic material, can be synonymous or nonsynonymous.
Gene Family
aka gene complex, sets of genes occurring across a number of different species which often serve similar biological functions (example: globin family, cytochrome family)
Syn v. NonSyn
Synonymous mutations are usually not deleterious, NonSyn are.
Molecular Clock
the fixation rate of mutation is theoretically constant and equal to neutral mutation rate, holds that macromolecules should diverge from one another at a constant rate
Pseudogenes
disabled duplicate gene sequences
Gene Duplication
is the most important process enabling proteins to acquire new functions, it may involve a part of a gene, parts of a chromosome or whole chromosomes.
Orthologs
genes found in different organisms that arose from a single gene in their common ancestor
Paralogs
genes that are related through gene duplication events in a single lineage
Spontaneous Generation
theory tested by Pasteur, culture medium in sealed beaker, warmed and allowed to sit, nothing happened. Did a second experiment with foreign particles added (first was free from any) again nothing happened.
NOCH
four most abundant elements in the body's of most living things. Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Hydrogen
D v. L- aminos
D and L aminos have chirality (they're mirror images) all of life's major functions utilize L-aminos, had we come from more than a single common ancestor there's a good chance some organisms would utilize D-aminos, none do (except the peptidoglycan cell walls of some bacteria)
Chiral Molecule
lacks an internal plane of symmetry and has a non superimposable mirror image.
Hyperthermophiles
live in environments from 60 degrees C and up, have a higher GC (C and G are joined by 3 H bonds, AT only has 2) content than organisms less suited to the heat, non photosynthetic, DNA polymerase from them is used in the PCR due to its ability to maintain protein integrity at high temperatures.
Ribozymes
RNA molecules with a specially designed tertiary structure that allows them to catalyze reactions (phosphodiester bonds, hydrolysis in other RNA, aminotransferase activity in ribosome) gives a lot of heft to the RNA world theory.
Early Atmosphere
composed mainly of hydrogen gas, water vapor, methane gas and ammonia. theorized recombination (in presence of lightning as an energy source) is due to the idea that when the above are bonded together, forming amino acids and the like, they exist in a lower energy state than when they are free.
Miller-Urey
synthesized aminos (both D and L stereochemistry) and organic matter from sea water, electricity and a mixture of gases similar to earth's early atmosphere.
P, C, L and N.A.
macromolecules, almost entirely composed of NOCH elements, made the same way, and in roughly the same proportions, in all living things
No Heredity
means no natural selection. if there is only a single type of thing being produced there are no alternatives.
Weissman
decided that Lamarckism was bullshit, there was no means by which acquired characteristics could be passed from P to O, like "sending a telegraph to China and having it arrive translated into Chinese"
Enzymes and Proteins
decrease the error rate of nucleic acid replication. in free solution the error rate is 1:20 (far too high to maintain life) but in our body the error rate is more like 1:1,000,000,000
UV Light
causes RNA to polymerize while blocking formation of molecules that could work to degrade RNA, early earth had much more UV light getting through (more support for RNA World theory)
RNA and Feathers
both initially served a different purpose they do now (not certainly in RNA's case, but most likely).
Ribozymes
probably used AAs as cofactors early on, since the AAs are more reactive than the nucleotides.
RNA Resume
able to self replicate, or duplicate other RNA
able to catalyze simple reactions
able to catalyze peptide bonding to produce short peptides (which could become proteins)
DNA/RNA Differences
RNA has a hydroxyl at 2 prime (decreases stability vs DNA) also RNA has a Uracil in place of its Thymine (Uracil requires less energy to produce)
Formation of Chromosomes
probably due to competition between genes for resources, aligning them and making them dependent upon on another would stop that. "8 men in a boat, all must row or none go home"
Cytochrome C
is very similar in Tuna and Rice, necessary molecules (or those known to work exceedingly well) don't tend to change over time.
Motoo Kimura
proposed the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution, postulating that at the molecular level the majority of mutations are selectively neutral and thus the majority of evolutionary changes in macromolecules is due to random genetic drift.
Mutation - Populations
avg. fitness population - (+) helps a little
avg. fitness among populations - (+) helps by adding genetic variability.
Genetic Drift - Populations
avg. fitness population - (-) hurts a little
avg. fitness among populations - (+) helps a bit by fixing different genes.
Gene Flow - Populations
avg. fitness population - (+) helps a little, brings in new alleles
avg. fitness among populations - (-) hurts, homogenizing force, mixes gene pools
Inbreeding - Populations
avg. fitness population - hurts, homozygosity @ loci
avg. fitness among populations - hurts, homozygosity @ several alleles
Selection - Populations
avg. fitness population - either way, depending on alleles affected
avg. fitness among populations - helps, because of differentiation of environments
Genes found in different organisms that arose from a single gene in their common ancestor are called?
Orthologs
Genes that are related through gene duplication events in a single lineage are called?
Paralogs
What accounts for most of the variation in genome size between organisms?
The amounf of non-coding DNA such as pseudogenes (disabled duplicates) and transposable elements (reproduce faster than the host genome)
What are the possible fates of a duplicated gene?
(1) both copies retain original function
(2) one copy becomes incapacitated due to deleterious mutations and becomes a pseudogene
(3) one copy retains original function while other accumulates enough mutations to allow it to change functions
What is the most important process enabling proteins to acquire new functions?
gene duplication.
T or F. More complex organisms have more DNA than less complex organisms?
True. Euks have more than Proks, plants have more than single celled organisms, Vertebrates have more than Non-Vertebrates.
Rates of Substitution
Pseudogenes (fastest) 4.5 per site per 10 million years.
Synonymous Subs 3.5
NonSynonymous .9
What does the Neutral Theory state?
proposed by Kimura in 1968, postulates that, at the molecular level, the majority of mutations are selectively neutral and that the majority of evolutionary changes in macromolecules result from random genetic drift.
What is the Molecular Clock?
theoretically, the fixation rate of mutation is constant and equal to the neutral mutation rate, the concept holds that macromolecules (Nucleotides and AAs) should diverge from one another at a constant rate, we can use this rate to estimate time.
What is a Gene Complex?
aka gene family, sets of genes occurring across a number of species often serving similar functions
Synteny
describes the physical co-localization of genetic loci on the same chromosome within an individual or species, syntenic group.
What is the genome?
the full compliment of genes in an organism, most found in nucleus, some located in mitochondria (circular like bacteria)
Selfish Genes
genes are competitive (dunno how) but grouping them together in the form of a chromosome makes them all row together (8 men in a boat, all row or they don't get anywhere) forming strong interdependencies and division of labor among them.
Non-Synonymous Mutations...
are deleterious, for example, simply replacing the glutamic acid with a valine in one of the genes that codes for RBCs causes sickle cell trait.
Equations
R = H^2 * S
H^2 = R/S (gain/difference)
COVop/VARp
V(P) = V(G) + V(E)
Artio and Perisso - dactyls
Artio - even toed
Perisso - odd-toed
Organisms with short generation times generally have...
a faster rate of molecular evolution.
The rate of random fixation of neutral mutations, per species per generation is equal to...
the rate of occurrence of neutral mutations per species per generation and is independent of population size.
Allopatry
geographic separation of one continuous (actually or potentially breeding) population into two
Sympatry
one continuous population diverges into two or more while still inhabiting the same general area
Vicariance
the event causing the one continuous (potentially or actually breeding) population to split into two, most often a force of nature.
Gene Flow Power
gene flow will cancel natural selection in groups trying to split, the two groups must completely cut ties in order for them to actually become separate gene pools.
Secondary Contact
yields hybrids, the greater the amount of time that passes between the split and the 2ndary contact, the greater the chance that the hybrid will be infertile or inviable.
Cryptic Species
look very similar but have different gene pools
Chemohetero
energy and carbon from organic
Chemoauto
energy and carbon from inorganic, aka chemolitho
Photoauto
light for energy, inorganic for carbon
Photohetero
light for energy, organic for carbon
Evolution of Eukaryotic Cell
(1) ditch the cell wall (2) increase surface flexibility and surface area (allows for endocytosis and more rapid exchange with environment) (3) cytoskeleton (actin or tubulin) to allow organization (4) nuclear envelope (keep genetic and metabolic processes separate) (5) digestive vesicles (6) endosymbiosis of organelles (mitochondria from cyano, chloroplasts from RGA)
Endosymbiosis of Mitochondria
completed the modern eukaryotic cell.
Globel
inside out cell. RNA ribozyme may have attached to lipid molecules causing conformational changes leading to the lipid surrounding the RNA, this leads to a more suitable environment for RNA to thrive.
Oparin-Haldane
1) assemble simple molecules into building blocks for polymers
2) assemble polymers so they can store info and catalyze
3) add membrane (Globel theory) and energy source.
Thermus aquaticus
bacteria whose polymerase is utilized in the PCR.
Prokaryotes have...
no membrane bound elements and no cytoplasmic division.
Endosymbiont Theory
(1) primary- large eukaryotes engulf cyanobacteria, double membrane (2) secondary- euglenoids engulf green algae, triple membrane (3) tertiary- Dinoglagellates engulf Euglenoids, quadruple membrane.
Zooxanthellae
tiny photosynthetic symbiotic flagellate protozoans, very sensitive to changes in their environment, a sort of bioindicator of pollution.
Terminal Electron Acceptor
aerobes use oxygen, anaerobes utilize sulfates and nitrates.
Most Protists...
are aquatic, living in fresh water, salt water, body fluid or soil water.
Facultative vs. Obligate
a facultative aerobe can utilize O2 if need be but doesn't have to, Oxygen is sufficient but not necessary. Obligate aerobes must use oxygen, it is necessary.
Euglena
flagellated (push and pull), some are photoauto and some are photohetero
Diatoms
low light photosynthesis, cover rocks in streams, major producers in coastal and fresh water, have silica shells
Pseudopod
false foot, extension of the cytoplasm, allow for movement. think amoebas.
Cilia
tiny hairs which move in coordination allowing movement fore and aft.
Flagella
like a sperm's tail
If gene flow between groups ceases...
then the likelihood that the two groups will diverge into distinct biological entities increases.
The BSC
is based fundamentally on sexually reproducing species, doesn't apply to asexual ones.
Macroevolution
evolution of new lineages - relationships of large groups to each other.
Microevolution
gradual accumulation of minute differences within a species over time.
Prezygotic Isolating Mechanism
a means of preventing zygote formation, most often a phenotypic difference (plumage differences, song differences)
Postzygotic Isolating Mechanism
prevents development of offspring after conception has occurred, zygote forms but it's development is halted and it dies.
In Hybrids...
it's the heterogamete (mammals - males, birds - females) which is the infertile sex.
Plesiomorphy
primitive characteristics - already present all along the lineage
Apomorphy
derived, new characters.
Homoplasy
character that seems like an apomorphy but isn't. flight.
DNA - RNA Differences
RNA has a hydroxyl @ 2' (making it less stable than DNA) and it utilizes Uracil in place of Thymine (Uracil requires less energy to produce)
Evidence in Favor of RNA World
RNA is able to self replicate and duplicate other RNAs
RNA can catalyze simple reactions
RNA can catalyze peptide bonding to produce short peptides (which can link to form polypeptides and eventually proteins)
4 Macromolecules
Lipids, Carbs, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids, all present in living things in roughly the same proportions and all are made in the same fashion.
Ribozymes are known to catalyze...
phosphodiester bonds, hydrolysis, and aminotransferase activity in ribosomes.
L and D Stereochemistry (AAs)
only the L form is present in living things (except the peptidoglycan cell walls of bacteria). L and D are chiral molecules.
NOCH Elements
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Hydrogen. 4 main life elements. Phosphorous and Sulfur are also important.
Earthly Origin
supported by the existence of hyperthermophiles (which live in similar conditions (sans the water element) as would have been present during the time of the first life) their use of inorganic materials and anaerobic metabolism show that life can be supported in such an environment.
ET Origin
supported by the Murchison Meteorites
Modern Bacteria and their extant relatives...
are pretty much exactly the same.
Earth's atmosphere...
was a reducing environment until about 3bya.
How did O2 become the electron acceptor of choice?
as cells began using photons for energy (with O2 as a biproduct) the later evolving (and currently existing) forms of life had to adapt to the increasingly O2 rich oxidizing atmosphere, some anaerobes probably became facultatively aerobic and others changed all together.
Genetic Code
based on sets of 3 nucleotides (ACTG) forms a high number of possible combinations allowing tons of stuff to be coded for.
Protein function...
is based on the structure of the protein, any small change in this conformation can cause the protein to be inactive or change function.
Heritability...
tells NOTHING about the specific genes that contribute to a trait.
Jaccard Similarity Index
shared/unique.
Environmentability =
1 - heritability.
Heritability < 0
experimental error or HUGE environmental effect.
Heritability > 1
experimental error or HUGE genetic effect.
Heritability close to 0 Small/Large
more environmental influence, low heritability
Heritability close to 1
not much environmental influence, high heritability
Genetic Variance is eliminated by selection if...
a trait is very important to survival or reproduction or if there's a population bottleneck.
Similarity between Cows and Langurs (foregut fermenters)
the high cellulose diet of cows and langurs has altered their lysosyme, the two species are identical at 5 spots, even though they are so distant, because of their diet, their lysosyme has become more resistant to pancreatic enzymes and the low pH of the stomach.
The longer ago two species shared a common ancestor...
the greater the difference in their AA sequence, the more synonymous mutations they will differ by.
Evolution would not have been possible if...
proteins were unable to change their functional roles. the thousands of functional genes that exist today must have arisen from a small number of ancestral genes.
Leaf eating monkeys, Leaf eating birds and Artiodactyls have...
all independently evolved a similar molecule that enables them to recover nutrients from fermenting bacteria.
Globins
pre-birth alpha and gamma carry most of the oxygen transporting weight, leading up to birth the gamma falls off and the beta picks up its slack. The change in globins is due to the need for different oxygen binding characteristics in the low oxygen amniotic environment.
OWM, NWM and Prosimians
OWM are trichromats (with red and green on the X chromosome and blue on an autosome)
NWM are tri and dichromats
Prosimians are dichromats.
Several rounds of duplication and mutation may lead to...
formation of a gene family - group of homologous genes with related functions.
Trichromat
able to distinguish Red, Blue and Green at equal light intensity.
Colored Animals and Fruit Eaters...
have evolved color vision.
Molecular Clock
rare spontaneous errors in DNA replication cause the mutations that drive molecular evolution. the accumulation of evolutionarily neutral differences between 2 sequences can be used to measure the error rate of DNA replication. fossils are used to calibrate by dating the fossil and then comparing it to a living species.
Theory of Spontaneous Generation
idea that organisms are constantly originating, becoming more and more complex over time, proven to be bullshit by Pasteur's experiment.
Cladogenesis
process by which one ancestral species becomes divided into two descendant species.
Polyploidy
condition in which one or more complete sets of chromosomes is added to the diploid genome.
Allopolyploid
organism that contains the genomes of 2 or more different species
Autopolyploid
polyploid organism that contains a duplicated genome of the same species. may result from a meiotic error.
Homoplasy
a shared character state that has not been inherited from a common ancestor exhibiting that state, may result from convergent evolution or evolutionary reversal.
Character State
one of two or more distinguishable forms of a character, such as the presence or absence of teeth in amniote vertebrates.
Convergent Evolution
similar structures in not-directly-related organisms.
Low H2
means that genetic variance has been eliminated by selection, the trait is very important (birth weight)
High H2
means that genetic variance has not been eliminated by selection, variability in the trait is very important (MHC genes)