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29 Cards in this Set

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Major groups of lipids
Saturated, unsaturated, steroids, phospholipids, and wax.
Major groups of carbohydrates
Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, and Chitin.
Saturated vs unsaturated lipids
Saturated fat has no double bonds between carbon atoms. mono-unsaturated fat has one double bond between carbon atoms. Polyunsaturated has two or more double bonds between carbon atoms.
Solute
The substance being dissolved by a solvent to form a solution.
Hypotonic
A solution that has low concentration of solutes compared to that of the solution placed adjacent to it. Syrup in water.
Hypertonic
A solution that has a high concentration of solutes relative to an adjacent solution. Water in syrup.
Scientific Method Steps
Make an observation, ask a question, hypothesis, experiment/test hypothesis, analy
Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a
proposed explanation or answer to your question based on an educated/ informed guess.
Diffusion
n is the movement of molecules from a region of
higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
Control
controls are set up the exact same as your experimental test, but with only one thing different
Test for monosaccharides (glucose) and disaccharides (lactos
Benedict's reagent. Positive results rage from yellow to orange to red depending of concentration.
Test for polysaccharides (starch)
Lugol’s solution or Iodine-Potassium Iodide (IKI). Turns dark blue or black in presence of starch.
Osmosis
; water molecules move down a concentration gradient across a
membrane
Test for lipids
Sudan red forms a separate red layer in the presence of lipids. Negative turn solution pink.
Test for proteins
Biuret reagent. Changes form blue to violet in the presence of proteins.
Storing microscope
1. Rotate the 4X objective into place.
2. Remove the slide from the stage.
3. Slide the light intensity lever to 0.
4. Turn off the power.
5. Unplug the cord and wrap it around the base of the microscope.
6. Replace the dust cover.
7. Use two hands, one under the base, to return the microscope to the cabine
Calculating magnification
Total magnification = Power of objective lens (4X, 10X, 40X) x Power of ocular lens (usually
10X
Muscular system
Movement
PCR, or Polymerase Chain Reaction
A method that creates billions of copies of a specific DNA section can be made from a single fragment, thus vastly increasing the quantity of DNA material
available to be analyzed
Digestive system
Functions as a path for eaten food to travel and be absorbed by the organism
Respiratory system
Facilitates breathing functions
Circulatory system
Facilitates blood movement throughout
the body
Excretory system
Filters the blood and removes
contaminants or excesses from the body
Reproductive system
Determines male or female; functions to produce offspring.
Skeletal system
Physical support for movement
Nervous system
Communication and control over body functions.
Stained gram negative bacteria
pink. Gram negative has a phospholipid outer wall.
Stained gram positive
purple. Gram positive has an outer carbohydrate cell wall.
Dna extraction
Lysis, purification, precipitation. lysis-heat, Purification-detergent. precipitation-alcohol dehydration of DNA.