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15 Cards in this Set

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Unifying Themes. Examples of Unifying Themes.
Something that applies to all areas of biology. Ex: cell, cell theory; metabolism, reproduction; DNA & heredity
Macromolecules
large molecules
Polymer
molecules consisting of many repeating molecular units (most biological units are polymers)
Monomer
Each individual unit of a polymer
Synthesis
Molecules coming together to form a polymer (Ex: glucose molecules ---> starch
Dehydration Reaction
How polymers are synthesized. Water molecules formed from H on polymer and HO (hydroxl group) from monomer
Breakdown (Hydrolosis) of Polymers
Opposite of Dehydration. Enzyme breaks down polymer by attaching H to shorter polymer chain and breaking off molecule and joining it with HO (adds water molecule, breaking a bond)
Carbohydrates
Sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
Monosacchride
simple sugar
How are sugars classified?
By the number of carbons they have. Ex: Pentose-5 carbons C5H12O5
Diasaccharide
2 sugars linked together
Glycosidic bond
2 glucose sugars bond together through dehydration synthesis to form Maltose
How do monosaccharides become diasaccharides?
Dehydration Synthesis bonds them together
How are polysaccharides stored in plants?
Simple sugars linked in coilded chains (starch), poylmers of glucose unit,
Starch stored in chloroplast in starch granule
How do animals store polysaccharides?
Glycogen granules hold coiled chains of glucose in cells of liver and muscles (a reserve source of energy for immediate use)