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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who developed the one gene one enzyme hypotheses?
Beadle and Tatum
What makes RNA different than DNA?
1. Single-stranded
2. sugar is ribose; RNA polymers are builts from ribonucleotides
3. racil instead of T
What are the three forms of RNA
mRNA, TRNA, and rRNA
What is mRNA
It is the messenger, it copies the instructions from the gene.
what is tRNA
transfer; links with amino acids and transfers them to make proteins
what is rRNA
where proteins are produced. main structural and catalytic components of ribosomes
What is transciption
making RNA using directions from a DNA template (base seq. to base seq.)
what is translation
making a polypeptide chain using directions in mRNA. (base sequence to amino acid sequence)
What are the three types of RNA polymerase used in making
II--mRNA and some small RNA molecules
III--tRNA and some small RNA molecules
What does upstream mean
toward the 5' end of the RNA strand, or toward the 3' end of the template strand (away from the direction of synthesis)
what is downstream
toward the 3' end of the RNA strand or 5' end of the template strand.
what are the three stages of transcription
initiation, elongation, and termination
what is a promoter
it is required for initiation. a site where RNA polymerase initially binds to DNA.
what is needed to allow RNA sythesis to begin
What are eukaryotic promoters used for?
genes that use RNA polymerase II
When does the amino group of the amino acid on the tRNA in the A site aligned with the carboxyl group of the amino acid in the P site?
What is a point mutation
one that results in the substitution of one base for another
What is a silent mutation
it does not actually cause a change in what the amino acid is coded for
What is a missense mutation
it does cause a change in what amino acid is coded for
What is a nonsense mutation
it results in the formation of a stop codon where an amino previously was coded for in the mRNA
What is a frameshift mutation
it shifts the reading frame when nucleotides are either added or deleted
What does a promoter do?
It determines what transciption factions can bind to the promoter to help initiate transciption.
What is a repressor
transciption factors that suppress or stop gene expression
What is an activator
transciption factors that either activate or enhance gene expression
What is an enhancer
DNA regions where activators will bind either directly or indirectly