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20 Cards in this Set

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Major Eutherian Lineages
Afrotheria
Xenarthra -Sloths
Euarchontoglires - rodents and bunnies
Australian Marsupials


Tazmanian Devil
Bandicoot
Koala
Dasyurid

Parameloid

Diprotodonts
S=cA^z
z=slope
c= fitted constant
A=area
S=#of species
Energetic model of body size (BMT model)
-Body size distribution are set by energetic requirements of species
-Smallest individuals are efficient in converting resources into reproductive effort
-But are limited by rate of acquisition
-large individuals are better at acquiring resources but they can produce fewer offspring
Latitudinal diversity gradient
Species richness decreases rapidly from the equator to the poles
- Very common pattern in both marine and terrestrial biota
-Few groups show the reverse trend
more species in the tropics
Density dependent mortality
-Area Hypothesis (more land around equators)
-Species –energy hypothesis
-cradle vs museum
evolutionarily it's been there longer
how do humans shift baseline - ex?
pollution
climate change
over fishing/hunting
introduced species
habitat destruction


black abalone
california lobster
sister group to mammals

mammals ancestor that is a therapsid
-other group that shares synapsis condition
hadrocodium wui

cynodont

pelycosaurs
bird characteristics


bird ANCESTOR
archaeoptrex

keeled sternum w/ pectoralis and supracidous muscles
beak
gizzard
feathers
pneumatic bones
AVIAN SKULL
perching foot


archeaoptrex has most with scales and triangular head too
Adaptations for processing high volumes of food
multiple dino lineages have 2nd palates. endotherms rely on food to provide energy so they must be able to efficiently eat a lot because they need more energy inputs
What is the sister group to dinos

what are three characteristcs
Lagosuchus - which were bipedal suggesting this was a primitive trait


3 or more sacral vertabrae
rear facing shoulder joint
open hip joint
two types of dinos hips



snakes are in what family
orinsincia - bird hip

sauricia - lizard hip
-birds derive from the latter

squamata = colubridae - snake family
Diapsids include
Archosaurs
Pseudosuchia
Orinsuchia

Lepidosaurs
Squamata
Anapsids

Shape of necks
Turtles

Pleurodira - side mov't

Crypodira - S shaped
Alligatorae
Alligators

Crocs

Galvalidae
Sphenodontida



Gekkotans
Lizard like stout bodied reptiles w/ large heads and thick tails
extinction...go!

List things that make u more likely to be extinct and the processes
Causes of extinction
*Stochastic Processes = ie volcano or hurricane -> chance or random events, particularly problematic for geographically restricted species
*Deterministic Processes = Traits related to extinction, vulnerability – how they make a living
i) Geographic range: Large = less vulnerable
ii) Dispersal ability: Higher = less vulnerable (ability to move away from the catastrophe)
iii) Trophic Status = higher up you are, the more vulnerable
iv) Specialization – Specialists are more vulnerable
v) Rarity – lower abundance, more vulnerable
vi) Population variability – higher -> more vulnerable (More fluxation in N is more vulnerable)
vii) Intrinsic rate of population increase – higher rate at which things can recover is considered less vulnerable
viii) Body size: Complex relationship – For terrestrial animals, large body size is more vulnerable
Phenology
Phenology = study of temporal aspects of recurrent natural phenomenon and their relation to climate
Diversity of the Sea – Causes?
Stability time hypothesis: Constant environment allow for stable biological interactions leading to specialization. Lack of disturbances allows formation of microhabitats (complex burrows exist)
2) Biological disturbance: Predation by megafauna reduces competition among macrofauna – coexistence. Macrofauna crop meiofauna.
3) Patchy food resources: Food falls are generally patchy and can support high species diversity
4) Large area: Depths > 1000m cover huge area in world oceans. Large area can support many species.
Species Energy Hypothesis
Species richness of an area is a direct function of available energy
-Positive relationship in terms of temperature relative to species
Energy – Temperature is a proxy