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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three kinds of biodiversity
Genetic
Species
Ecological
Genetic
Variety within the same species
Species
#of different species in a ecosystem
ecological
diversity within a community
The new wave
use of molecular techniques
3 ideas o categorize species
number of niches
number of trophic levels
amount of energy
how species do we know of so far?
1.4 million
what group of species are the most numerous?
inverts (no backbones)
What do we get from the abundant life forms on the planet?
food, drugs and medicines, ecological benefits (water treatment), Aesthetic Benefit (charismatic creatures)
extinction
elimination of a species from a planet
is extinction a bad thing?
no
What causes species to go extinct?
mutation and natural selection, new form can repace an old one, new species ot competes different species
How many mass extinctions have their been?
5
cretaceous
permian
loss of dinosaurs
2/3 of marine species and half of all animals and plants 250myo
what are the mojor current causes of extinction?
habitat removal, pests, disease, pollution
kudzu
erosion control
learfy spurge
entire plant is poisonor
whirling disease
attacks cartilage and cases funky swimming
fungal blight
decimated the American Chestnut
Bioacuumulation and biomagnification
gets more (the larger the fish)
ESA
Endagnered Species Act developed in 1973
Endangered
soon to become extinct
Threatened
soon to enter the endangered species list in near future
Vulnerable
rare or at risk; rare because of natural and human causes
HCP
Habitat conservation plans- can harvest but need to make sure it doesn't affect endangered species
Effects of small population size
loss of genetic diversity, loss of diversity decreases the ability to adapt and reproduce
MVP
Minimum viable Population- balance between large and small, close and far
Safe Harbor and No Suprises
if someone from HCP comes over to check on the grizzly bears a farmer had on his land, if he notices that there are 5 more than the original 2, the farmer still only has to protect those 2, not the other 3
3 stages within the ESA act are:
Vulerale, threatened, extinction
three main types of population growth:
exponetial, Arithmetic, Logistic
explonetial growth
constant rate per unit time
arithmetic Growth
increases at a consant amount per unit time
Biotic Potential
each species has a maximum level of reproductive output
What can cause populations to fluctuate?
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic
abiotic vs. Biotic
Density dependant vs. Density independent
dieback
populations crash when death rates exceed birth rates
overshoot
when population growth exceeds K of the environment
natality
production of new individuals
fecundity
ability to reproduce
fertility
number of offspring produced
mortality
emigration ( individuals removed from pop.)
Life expectancy
most likely age that is obtained
life span
max number of years
Tolerance LImits
minimum and max. environmental conditions that species can tolerate (temperature, oxygen level...etc)
using tolerance to our advantage
provides us with valuable environment indicators
adaptation
a change in anatomy or physiology that allws a species or population to live in a particular area
2 ways adaptation is used
acclimation and population level changes in organisms
5 observations
tremendous fertility
stable populations
limited resources
variation
heritabiltiy
3 inferences
struggle for existence
struggle not random
gradual change; character accumulate
What needs to be present for evolution to occur?
variety within a population
selective pressure
heritability
2 ways speciation can occur
allopatric (found in different places)
sympatirc (found in same area)
Divergent evolution
mutations and different selective pressures cause populations to evolve along dissimlar paths
Convergent evolution
when two different species evolve to look or funtion like one another
law of competitive exclusion
can only share resource for a short period of time
Batesian mimicry
harmless species evolve characteristics that mimic unpalatable or poisonour species
Mullerian Mimicry
2 unpalatable species evolve to look alike
intraspecific
between members of same species
interspecific
between different species
symbiosis
2 species live in close relationship
commensalism
one benefits, other is no affected
mutualism
both benefit
parasitism
one benefits one harmed
primary succession
colonizing; no species existed before
secondary succession
existing community changes
climax community
period of succession where little change occurs