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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cyclic AMP
ringed molecule made from ATP; functions in intracellular communication and regulation of bacterial operons
diacylglycerol
2nd messenger produced by the cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane
hormone
one of many types of cellular signals formed in specialized cells that travels with the body fluid and acts on target cells to change their function
inositol phosphate
2nd messenger that functions as an intermediate between nonsteroid hormones and the 3rd messenger, a rise in calcium concentration in the cytoplasm
ligand
molecule that binds to a specifc receptor site on another molecule
local regulators
chemical messengers that influence cells in their vicinity
protein kinase
enzyme that transfers phosphate from ATP to a protein
protein phosphatase
enzyme that removes phosphate from ATP to a protein, reverses effects of protein kinase
reception
target cell's detection of a signal outside the cell by binding to a receptor protein
response
change in cellular activity due brougha bout by a transduced signal from outside the cell
scaffolding proteins
large relay protein to which other relay proteins attach to effectively speed up signal transduction
2nd messenger
small, nonprotein, soluble molecules that relay a signal to a cell's interior in reponse to a signal received by a signal receptor protein
transduction
conversion of a signal from outside the cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
anchorage dependence
requirement that a cell must be attached to a substratum in order to divide
aster
radial array of microtubules that extend from each centromere towards the plasma membrane in a cell undergoing mitosis
benign tumor
mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin, can usually be removed by surgery
binary fission
form of cell division for prokaryotes. each daughter cell receives single parental chromosome
cell cycle control system
cyclically operating set of molecules that trigger and coordinate key events in the cell cycle
cell division
reproduction of cells, functions in cell repair and renewal
cell plate
double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which a new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
centromere
in condensed form in duplicated chromosome, centralized region linking 2 sister chromatids
centrosome
material in the cytoplasm that is important during cell division, organizing center for microtubules
checkpoint
critical control point in the cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cell
chromatin
complex of DNA and proteins that make up a eukaryotic chromosome, when cell is not dividing it exists as long thin fibers
chromosomes
gene-carrying structures found in the nucleus, long DNA molecule with its associated proteins
cleavage
process of cytokinesis in animal cells, charactized by the pinching of the plasma membrane.
cleavage furrow
1st sign of cleavage in an animal cell characterized by a shallow groove forming on the surface of the old metaphase plate
cyclin
regulatory protein whose concentration fluctuates cyclically
cyclin dependent kinase
protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm to form 2 separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis
Density-independent inhibition
phenomenon in animal cells where cell stops dividing when they come into contact with each other
gametes
haploid cell such as an egg or sperm, gametes come together during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
genome
complete complement of an organism's gene, an organism's genetic material
G0 phase
nondividing state in which a cell has left the cycle
G1 phase
1st growth phase, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis
G2 phase
2nd growth phase, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis
Growth factor
protein that must be present in the extracellular environment for growth and development of different types of cells; local regulator that stimulates cell proliferation and differentiation
interphase
period in cell cycle when the cell is not dividing but metabolic activity is high and cell size increases. Accounts for 90% of the cell cycle
Kinetochore
specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitiotic spindle
malignant tumor
cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair organ function
meiosis
2 stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that yield cells with half the # of chromosomes as the original cell
metaphase plate
imaginary plane during metaphase in which centromeres meet midway between the 2 poles
metastasis
spread of cancer cells to locations distant from the original site
mitotic phase
phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
mitotic spindle
assembly of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis
origin of replication
site where the replication of DNA molecule begins
mitosis
nuclear division in eukaryotic cell that consists of 5 stages. duplicated chromosomes are conserved by being equally divided to each daughter nuclei
prophase
1st step of mitosis, nucleus/nucleolus still intact, chromatin condenses, mitotic spindle begins to form
prometaphase
2nd step of mitosis, nuclear envelope fragments and spindle microtubules attach at the kinetchores of the chromosomes, chromosomes of identical sister chromatids appear
metaphase
3rd step of mitosis, spindle completed, chromosomes attached to microtubules attached at their kinetchores align on the metaphase plate
anaphase
4th stage of mitosis, chromatids of each chromosome separated, daughter chromosomes move to opposite poles of cell
telophase
5th stage of mitosis, daughter nuclei form, beginning of cytokinesis