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41 Cards in this Set

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Amino-Terminal(N-Terminal) Amino Acid
the amino acid with the free-NH3+ group at the end of the protein.
Carboxyli-terminal amino acid
the amino acid with the free -COO-group a the end of a protein
Residue(amino acid)
an amino acid unit in a polypeptides
Hydrophobic
WAter-fearing; a hydrophobic substance does not dissolve in water
Hydrophilic
Water-loving; a hydrophilic substance dissolves in water
Disulfide Bond
An S-S bond formed between 2 cysteine side chains; cna join 2 peptide chains togethere or caue a lop in a peptide chain
Simple protein
a protein composed of only amino acid residues
Conjugated Protein
a protein that incorporates one or more non-amino acid unitys in its structure
Hemoglobin
is a conjugated quaternary protein composed of four polypeptide chains(2 alpha chains and 2 Beta) held 2gether by the interaction of hydrophobic grous and 4 heme groups.
Non-covalent forces
forces of attraction other than covalen bonds that can act between molecules or within molecules.
BIOCHEMISTRY
the study of life processes how do life forms produce energy
Glucose
Simplest Sugar
3 types of "food" that act as "fuel" or
“building blocks” for animals:
1.  Carbohydrates
2.  Lipids              
3.  Proteins
Hydrolyze
react with water to decompose or "split up"
3 classes of carbohydrates
 1.  sugars
 2.  starches     
3.  cellulose
Simple Sugar or monosaccharides
building blocks for other sugars; in fact, they are the building blocks for all carbohydrates.
Glucose
used a "raw fuel". It can be administered intravenously to raise a person's blood sugar and to provide an immediate "fuel" for producing energy.
Fructose
found in many plants
In humans, fructose tastes "sweeter" than glucose.  
Dissacharides
are essentially two monosaccharide (simple sugar) structures bonded together at one specific site.
Lactose
is a dissacharide formed from a glucose unit and a galactose unit.  It has a beta linkage.  A beta linkage occurs when the sugar units are linked from the top of one ring to the bottom of the other ring.
Maltose
is another dissacharide. It consists of two glucose units connected together.
It is digestible by humans, so the glucose units are bonded together with an alpha linkage.
Polysaccharides
contain many monosaccharide units
-polymers
Anomers
Cyclic sugars that differ only in positions of substituents at the hemiacetal carbon; the a-form has the –OH group on the opposite side from the –CH2OH;the b-form the –OH group on the same side as the –CH2OH group
dextrorotatory(D)
classification of R-glyceraldehyde which has a specific rotation of 8.7 degree in clockwise Direction
Levorotatory
classification of S-glyceraldehyde that has a specific rotation of – 8.7o plane of polarized light was rotated
in the counterclockwise direction.
Diasteromers
stereoisomers hta are not mirror images of each others.
Glucose
is the most important simple carbohydrate in human metabolism. it is the final product of carbohydrate digestion that provide acetyl group for entry into the citric acid cycle.
D-Galactose
widely distributed in plant gums and pectins.I't s also a component of disaccharide lactose and is produced from lactose during digestion
D-Fructose
often called levulose or fruit sugar occurs in honey and many fruits
-six carbon sugar
-ketohexose
Ribose
-five carbon sugars
-most important as parts of large biomolecules
-deoxyribose is differ from ribose by the absence of oxygen atom.
glycogen
-animal starch
-It is a polymer of glucose units that form branched chains.
-It forms small granules.
Amylose
is composed of a linear polymer chains of glucose.
Amylopectin
like glycogen, is formed of branched polymer chains of glucose
Reducing Agent
Carbohydrates that react in basic solution with mild oxidizing agents.
Cellulose
is a straight-chain polymer of Beta Dglusoe with B-1,4 link.
It's not digestable by human but digestable in animals.
Starch
polymer of alpha-D glucose connected by alpha 1,4 lingks in straight-chain(amylose) and branched-chain(amlopectin)
Glycogen
is a storage form of glucose for animals, including humans
3 most important Polysaccharide
1. cellulose
2. Starch
3. Glycogen
3 kinds of Disaccharides
1.Maltose
2.Sucrose
3.Lactose
Kinds of Monosaccharidess
1.Galactose
2.Glucose
3.Fructose
4.Ribose adn 2 Deoxyribose
Glycoside
a cyclic acetal formed by reaction of monosaccharide and alcohol accompanied by losing H2O