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53 Cards in this Set

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What are the functions of proteins?
1- Catalytic Functions.
2- Transport Functions.
3- Contractile Functions.
4- Protective Functions.
5- Regulatory Functions.
Histones' special functions are
They are closely associated with DNA, they control & regulate gene transcription & translation.
Define axial ration
Length / Width
Fibrous proteins are water .....
insoluble
The axial ration of fibrous proteins is:
>=10
The axial ration of globular proteins is:
<=4
How are the proteins chemically classified?:
1- Simple proteins.
2- Conjugated proteins.
3- Derived proteins.
Protamis are ..... proteins
simple proteins
Prolamins are ...... proteins
simple proteins
Name 2 prolamin proteins
Zein of corn
Gliadin of wheat
...... are simple structural proteins
Scleroproteins
Name 2 simple proteins which are soluble in water:
1- Albumin.
2- Protamins.
Name 2 simple proteins which denature with heat:
1- Albumin.
2- Globulins.
Name 2 simple proteins which preciptate in amm sulfate solutions:
1- Albumins. (fully saturated)
2- Globulins. (Half saturated)
Globulins aren't soluble in water but they're soluble in:
dilute salt solution.
Protamins are rich in
Arginine & Lysine Residues
Prolamins are soluble in
70-80% alcohol solution
Scleroproteins are soluble in
hot strong acids
the non-protein part in a conjugated protein is called
prothetic group
Proteins are classified on the basis of the chemical nature of their prothetic group into:
1- Glycoproteins.
2- Lipoproteins.
3- Nucleoproteins.
4- Phosphoproteins.
5- Chromoproteins.
6- Metalloproteins.
All proteins of the pituitary are
glycoproteins except for oxytocin & vasopressin
What is the protein when the carbohydrate content is more than 10% of the whole protein molecule
mucoproteins or proteoglycans
Chylomicrons are
lipoproteins
Casein of milk is a
phosphoprotein
VLDL, LDL, HDL are
Lipoproteins
A protein with a yellow-colored prothetic group is
Riboflavin
A protein with a red-colored prothetic group
Hemoglobin
A protein with a purple-colored prothetic group
Visual purple(Vit.A)
(Rhodopsin)
A protein with a green-colored prothetic group
Chlorophyll
Copper-containing metalloprotein found in plasma
Ceruloplasmin
Copper containing enzyme essential for collagen synthesis
Lysl Oxidase Enzyme
Carbonic anhydrase contains
Zinc
Iron containing proteins are subdivided into:
1- Heme-containing proteins.
2- Non Heme-containing proteins.
List some example of heme-containing proteins
Hemoglobin
Myoglobin
Cytochrome Oxidase
Cytochrome p-450
Catalase
Tryptophan pyrrolases.
List some examples of non heme-containing proteins
Ferritin
Transferrin
Lactoferrin
The only bonds that can't be broken by denaturation agents
Peptide bonds
Name 2 agents which break the sulfide bond
beta-mercaptoethanol
performic acid
Van der waal's forces occur at a distance of
3-4 A(contact distance)
protein coformation
the proteins after interactive forces has taken place between the AAs of the protein
Native proteins
Proteins in their functional, folded conformation.
List the main bonds which distinguish each of the following protein structures:
1- Primary.
2- Secondary.
3- Tertiary
1- Peptide bonds.
2- Hydrogen bonds.
3- All of the other forces, esp. disulfide bonds.
The types of secondary structures are
1- Alpha Helices.
2- Beta pleated sheets.
3- Beta turns.
The alpha helices' structure is stabilized by
Intrachain hydrogen bonds
Each turn of the alpha helix consists of .... AA
3.6
The alpha helix occurring in most proteins is .... handed
right
Disruptions of the alpha helix may occur due to:
1- Steric effect by bulky amino acids.
2- Proline's N which is a part of a hard ring structure.
3- Electrostatic repulsions.
The two types of beta pleated sheets are
parallel
antiparallel
The beta pleated structure is rigid, therefore it can be found in
fibrous proteins
A polypeptide unit in the quaternary structure of a protein is called
monomer
protomer
Amyloid
protein deposits
Physical factors which lead to denaturation are:
1- High temperature
2- Vigorous Shaking.
3- High Pressure.
4- U.V & X-Ray radiations.
Chemical factors leading to denaturation are
1- Strong acids and bases(irreversible)
2- Beta-mercaptoethanol.
3- Sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS)
4- Concentrated urea.
.... is used in laboratories to denature plasma proteins
Trichloroacetic acid