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64 Cards in this Set

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a solution with excess hydrogen ions is a?
acid
a solution with excess oxide ions is a ?
base
Monomer
subunit that acts as a building bliock for larger molecules
Polymer
a very long molecule consisting of repeated linked units
Isomer
compounds that have the smae simple formula but different 3 dimensional structures
Carbon
basis of organic chemistry
Organic compounds are compounds with atoms of ?
C and H together
the four major types of organic compounds are?
carbs lipids proteins nucleic acids
what are carbs (general)
sugars and starches
what are lipids (general)
fats, oils, waxes
what are proteins?
enzymes and amino acids
what are nucleic acids (general)
RNA DNA
carbs structure
C H O , H and O in a 2:1 ratio
what are simple sugars called?
monosaccharides
complex sugars?
polysaccharides
what is a disaccharide?
double sugar, or two monosaccharides bonded together
polysaccharides?
omre than 3 monosaccharides bonded together
Carbs functions 5
made by autotrophs
source of energy
stored as glycogen in animals
stored as starch in plants
energy released when storage is broken
an ex: of disacchardies
maltose, sucrose, lactose
in a compound, if there are 135 monosacchardies how many h20 molecules?
134
Lipids are composed of what?
3 molecules of fatty acids, and one glycerol
oraganic compound composed of
C H O
monomers are generally?
glycerol and fatty acids
what is the carboxyl group
C=O
\
OH
what is the hydroxyl group
OH
fatty acids are ___ if thy contain no double bonds
saturated
4 lipid functions
cell membrane
energy storage
energy per gram
non polar
saturated fatty acids- ?
all carbon atoms are connected by single bonds
unsaturated fatty acids
some carbon atoms are connected by double bonds
phospholipids
a lipid made up of two fatty acids and a phosphate group
cholesterol
a complex lipid which is part of animal cells and important in nutrition
Triglycerides
made of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
Triglycerides
made of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
Proteins
organic compound composed of C H O N
the monomers for proteins are called
amino acids
amino acids are joined by a special type of covalent bond called a?
pepide bond
two amino acids joined together called a?
dipeptide
many amino acids joined together
polypeptide
proteins have 4 levels of structure
primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary
primary
order of amino acids
secondary
folding of amino acid chain
tertiary
bending among adjacent amino acid chains
quaternary
folding among all the polypetides making up the protein
enzymes usually
break down covalent bonds to obtain energy for reactions
the molecular shape protein
crucial to its function
Enzymes are (general)
complex proteins
enzymes can also be called ?
catalysts
the way enzymes work they are
reusable
Enzymes are very specific
each type controls only one reaction
"active site"
has a specific shape on or in enzyme like puzzle where shape fits
coenzymes
work together with enzymes, non protein compounds which assist enzymes and must be present for enzymes to function
substrates
reactants of reaction
how enzymes work 1st step
enzynes temporarily bind to substartes to from the enzynes substrate complex
how enzymes work 2nd step
the enzyme then causes the reaction to take place changing the substartes but not the enzyme
how enzymes work step 3
the enzyme separates from the rpducts and is free to work on more substrates
low temperature- enzyme activity is?
low
increase temp?
increase enzyme activity
enzymes wont work as quicky if ?
there arent many substrates waiting to react
each enzyme works best
with a specific range of pH
Nucleic Acids structure
C H N O P
monomers called _____ are bonded to a sugar and phosphate grouppp
nucleotides
polymer is sometimes a long, spiral shaped molecule called
double helix DNA
2 functions of nucleic acids
-form a conde which contains cell instructions
-dna deoxyribosenucleic acids) master blue print
Rna
copy of dna, moves around cytoplasm of cell instructions for protein synthesis